Cannabis term is used for plants Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and of minor significance, Cannabis ruderalis. It induces mental and physical effects like psychoactive, mildly euphoric, relaxing intoxication or “high” and change in perception. Cannabis also induces an increase in heart rate, a lowering of blood pressure due to vasodilatation, appetite stimulation, dry mouth, and dizziness. However, there is an up rise in use of cannabis among the young population as an alternate of synthetic drugs, to cure symptoms of many disorders like parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and alzheimer’s.
Aim: To review and highlight the recent mechanism of action, effects on psychomotor and cognitive performance and health risk of cannabis consumption.Result and Conclusion: The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa) contains many compounds (cannabinoids), but (delta) 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient. THC breaks down to produce cannabinol and was identified—along with cannabidiol (CBD, the main non-psychoactive component). However, THC was not isolated, synthesized, and stereochemically defined for a long time. THC is concentrated in the flowering head of the female plant and selective growing in the past 5–10 years has substantially increased THC content from 1–3% to 6–13% and above. Thus, nowadays users might not have same experience as users in past. There are endocannabinoids formed in neurons.
They are important for regulation of pleasure, body movement , memory, thinking, concentration, appetite, and pain. It is also important for brain development and directs neural cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. Unlike many active molecules which are stored, these are produced “on demand” from membranous fatty-acid precursors. The release of active endocannabinoids is due to cellular stimulations like neuronal depolarization. These endocannabinoids bind to cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).
CB1 endocannabinoid system regulates synaptic neurotransmission of excitatory and inhibitory circuits. Whereas, CB2 receptors have been implicated in the control of “inflammatory” pain. Some patients with symptoms like neuropathic pain, insomnia, seizures of various disorders like parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and alzheimer’s lack these endocannabinoids. Hence, on cannabis intake THC and CBD binds at cannabinoid receptors and gives relief from the above-mentioned symptoms.