disease and cancer are the two leading causes of cancer worldwide (Koene
1). The two diseases are usually
considered to be separate, but there may be a link between the two. The experiment being tested is whether cancer
is linked to cardiovascular disease, and if having cancer will increase the
chance of acquiring cardiovascular disease.
different experiments conducted were performed on different groups, which help
better understand if there is a link to cardiovascular disease and cancer in
the entire population, or just a specific group. In article one, Journal of Clinical
Oncology, the scientists surveyed “case data from the years 1973-2011. They
then took that information to analyze the different races and genders, and
their risk of contracting cardiovascular disease (Beckman 1). In article 2, The
Patient Education & Counseling article, the scientists “recruited English speaking
breast cancer survivors in New Jersey” (Christian 1). They conducted surveys and interviews to
those breast cancer survivors. They
surveyed those individuals and asked them questions about their medical
history, and any other questions that pertained to the scientists experiment. In article three, the scientists “explore the
risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major
epidemiological studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for
them” (Koene 1).
scientists found and reported that there was a link between cancer and
cardiovascular disease in all three of the articles. According to article three, there were modifiable
Cardiovascular Disease risk factors along with non-modifiable risk factors
(Koene 1). There was an alarming link
between obesity, cancer, and Cardiovascular disease. In article three, the scientists researched
whether obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease had a shared biology. Leptin and interleukin-6 are both often found
in obese patients. Leptin has been
proven to cause cardiovascular disease, while interleukin-6, often found in
adipose tissue, was linked to cancer. A result found in all three of the
articles found that African Americans, who had previously had cancer as a child
or younger adult, are far more likely to have cardiovascular disease and die
from it than any other race. All three
articles also found that breast cancer was a leading cause to cardiovascular
three of the articles are trying to uncover if there is a link between cardiovascular
disease and cancer, and they all did similar experiments and received similar
results. All three articles found that
African American women are at the highest risk of cancer and cardiovascular
disease. Two of the three articles found
that breast cancer was the leading cancer that could cause cardiovascular
disease, which is why women are more likely to get cardiovascular disease after
one and two, studied and investigated whether “cardiovascular risk differs as a
function of race and primary cancer type” (Berkman 1). The scientists main goal in this article was
to determine whether race played a large role in cardiovascular disease risk
after having cancer. The scientist also observed whether different cancers were
more likely to cause cardiovascular disease. Article three differed from
article one and two because the scientist focused on the whole population
rather than a specific gender and cancer.
The scientists also researched “modifiable and non modifiable CVD risks
related to cancer.
are many different strengths and weaknesses in all of the research and
experiments performed. Article one,
studied 164,316 different patients, which is a strong amount of individuals for
an experiment. Although they studied and
observed a lot of individuals, 10% were African Americans, 82% were white, and
8% were other races (Berkman 1). The
scientists results about African American women who had cancer are more likely
to develop cardiovascular disease could be different if they had an even amount
of individuals among the different races.
Article two also observed many individuals, which is a strength, but the
scientists only observed English speaking African Americans and White breast
cancer survivors in New Jersey. This part
of the experiment is a weakness because 45% of the population in New Jersey is
white, while 12% are African American, according to Sergio Bichao, an author at
Central Jersey. Article three has the
strongest amount of information. Article
three observed the entire population rather than specific genders and
races. A large weakness is the
scientists didn’t specifically state the amount of individuals they were
observing, but the scientists providing statistics implying that a large amount
of individuals were observed.
two was the only article that contained bias.
Article two only observed English speaking breast cancer survivors in
the state of New Jersey. Since there are
more than three times the amount of white people in New Jersey, the scientist
were most likely trying to skew the results.
one and two were similar to the question, does cancer cause cardiovascular disease,
but article three was the closest.
Article one and two focused specifically on women and breast
cancer. Article three was very similar
to the stated question because the scientists researched the entire
population. The scientists also listed
non modifiable risk factors, “including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, are
uncontrollable features that influence incidence rates of both cancer and CVD”
(Koene 1). Dr. Koene also listed “modifiable
cardiovascular risk facots and their cancer risk”. Obesity was the leading cause of both Obesity
and Cardiovascular disease (1).
one is relevant to cancer and cardiovascular disease because the scientists researched
the affects that cancer at a young age had on women, and then the chances these
women would develop cardiovascular disease.
Article two was also relevant because the scientists researched whether
breast cancer lead to cardiovascular disease.
Article three was the most relevant because it gave many risk factors to
cardiovascular disease from multiple types of cancer. The scientists also found some ways that
cardiovascular disease, and even cancer, can be prevented.
three articles further proved the point that cancer can lead to cardiovascular
disease. Genetics play a large role in
the the risk of getting both cancer and cardiovascular disease.
will be adding on to Dr. Berman’s Experiment, but I will be creating a bigger
population. The experiment being
conducted will be a large group of both women and men separated into two
groups. The twp groups will be
individuals with cancer, and individuals who were diagnosed with cardiovascular
disease after having cancer. As the
scientist, I will observe these individuals for 20 years. For those 20 years, the individuals will have
yearly checkups. The patients with
cancer will be observed to see if they are starting the develop cardiovascular
disease. The patients who already have
cardiovascular disease will be observed and ask to record all of the activity
that is done in his or her life. This
will help determine if the cardiovascular disease was non modifiable or