Cardiovascular such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is aclass of diseases that include the heart or blood vessels.

Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery disease (CAD)such as angina  and myocardial infarction (commonly knownas a heart attack).1Cardiovasculardiseases account for more deaths worldwide than any other disease. Together theyresulted in 17.9 million deaths (32.1%) in 2015, up from 12.3 million (25.

8%)in 1990.2Overweight and obesity are major riskfactors for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.other risk factors includes hypertension, dyslipidaemia and impaired glucosetolerance/insulin resistance.3Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that functions asa steroid hormone.  it has been recognizedas a vitamin which is essential for bone–mineral health. numerous experimentaland observational studies have highlighted the role of vitamin D in immunity,metabolic syndrome (obesity and diabetes), cancers, renal disease, memory, andneurological dysfunction.

4Furthermore,recent studies have suggested a potential role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25-OH-D), the major circulating form of vitamin D, in risk reduction ofcardiovascular diseases (CVD) 5Although theunderlying biological causes are not fully understood, the association of25-OH-D with cardiovascular pathology is speculated to be driven by variousmechanisms: apart from a potential direct impact on cardiomyocytes andmyocardial diseases, it has been suggested that 25-OH-D indirectly modifies CVDrisk by its association with cardiovascularrisk factors like obesity, diabetes,hypertension, smoking, or cholesterol level. However, vitamin D physiology may differ accordingto body weight. individuals with obesity require higher doses of vitamin D inorder to improve their vitamin D status compared to subjects with normal weight6Association between vitamin D status  and cardiometabolic profile improvement in adultswith obesity will be important public health initiatives in using vitamin D supplementation to improvecardiovascular risk in adults with obesity.

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