Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is aclass of diseases that include the heart or blood vessels.
Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery disease (CAD)such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly knownas a heart attack).1Cardiovasculardiseases account for more deaths worldwide than any other disease. Together theyresulted in 17.9 million deaths (32.1%) in 2015, up from 12.3 million (25.
8%)in 1990.2Overweight and obesity are major riskfactors for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.other risk factors includes hypertension, dyslipidaemia and impaired glucosetolerance/insulin resistance.3Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that functions asa steroid hormone. it has been recognizedas a vitamin which is essential for bone–mineral health. numerous experimentaland observational studies have highlighted the role of vitamin D in immunity,metabolic syndrome (obesity and diabetes), cancers, renal disease, memory, andneurological dysfunction.
4Furthermore,recent studies have suggested a potential role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25-OH-D), the major circulating form of vitamin D, in risk reduction ofcardiovascular diseases (CVD) 5Although theunderlying biological causes are not fully understood, the association of25-OH-D with cardiovascular pathology is speculated to be driven by variousmechanisms: apart from a potential direct impact on cardiomyocytes andmyocardial diseases, it has been suggested that 25-OH-D indirectly modifies CVDrisk by its association with cardiovascularrisk factors like obesity, diabetes,hypertension, smoking, or cholesterol level. However, vitamin D physiology may differ accordingto body weight. individuals with obesity require higher doses of vitamin D inorder to improve their vitamin D status compared to subjects with normal weight6Association between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic profile improvement in adultswith obesity will be important public health initiatives in using vitamin D supplementation to improvecardiovascular risk in adults with obesity.