Chapter 4

The aristocratic composer poets of Northern France were the ____.
trouveres

The term ___ refers to any serious latin song with a rhymed, rhythmical text regardless of the subject.
conductus

Love was a main topic of secular song among the troubadours,
trouveres, minnesinger, and ____.

The notation of secular song included only the ____ was notated precisely.
?

Secular song in Germany was influenced by the music of the ___ but was written in German.
Troubadours

The estampie and instampita were ___ forms.
dance

_____ was expressed in song usually described a man who loves and unattainable or unavailable woman
fine amour/ courtly love

The ___ is a five stringed instrument played with a bow.
vielle

The ___ is similar to the oboe.
shawm

Percussion instruments in the Middle Ages included __ and ___.
pipe and tabor

Portative and positive refer to two types of a _____.
organ

Chanson de Roland is an example of a ____.
chanson de geste (song of deeds)

The troubadours wrote and sang songs in what language?
Occitan

The Cantigas de Santa Maria were written in what language?
Galician-Portuguese

___ were traveling entertainers who juggled as well as sang.
jongleurs

___ were students who sang secular songs in Latin
goliards

The surviving examples of secular song include a few thousand texts but only some have ____.
melodies

Bar form can be expressed as ____.
AAB

A Chansonnier is a book of ____.
secular songs with french words

Adam de la Halle’s Jeu de Robin et Marion is an example of a ____.
musical play

versus
type of latin sacred song, either monophonic or polyphonic
setting a rhymed, rhythmic poem
sometimes attached to liturgy
music newly composed, not adapted from chant

Conductus
similar to versus
rhymed, rhythmical texts in Latin
original music
“conduct” a celebrant or liturgical book from one location to another during liturgy

Goliard
text in latin
goliards, wandering students and clerics
goliard songs: topics include religious themes, satire, and celebration of earthly pleasures such as eating and drinking

vernacular
native language or dialect

epic
long poem, from oral transmission, narrating and adventures of heroic/legendary figures in history
in N. French vernacular
Epics in other countries, Beowulf, Norse eddas, and German Song of the Nibelungs were likely sung but music was not written down.
Bards in celtic lands sang epics in banquets, accompanied themselves on harp or fiddle

Chanson de Geste
“song of deeds”
medieval French epic recounting deeds of national heros
sung in melodic formulas
little music has survived
most famous: song of roland

Bard
medieval poet/ singer, especially of epics Bards in Celtic lands sang at banquets, accompanied themselves on harp or fiddle

jongleur
French; medieval musician; street performer

minstrel
traveling musician, some emploted at a court or city
specialized musician
many highly paid, unlike jongleur

troubadour
poet/composer of southern france
wrote monophonic songs
language: Occitan

Trouvere
poet/composer of Northern france
monophonic songs
Language: Old French

trobairitz
female troubadour

chansonnier
surviving manuscript collection of secular songs with French words
used for collections of monophonic troubadour and trouvere songs and for collections of polyphonic songs

courtly love
fine amour; idealized love for unattainable women who are admired from a distance:
central theme of troubadours and trouveres

roundeau
ABaAabAB
capital letters- refrain
undercase- new text set to music from refrain
French Forme Fixe
Robin M’aime <-- rondeau

Minnesinger
Knightly poet; musicians who wrote in Middle High German
modeled on troubadour
sang love songs; strophic
AAB–bar form
rhythmic notation unclear
crusade songs new genre

Bar Form
song from where first section of melody is sung twice with different texts
A: Stollen (same poetic meter, rhyme scheme, and melody)
B: Abgesang (longer, end with all or last part of A)
AAB

Lauda
Italian devotional song
sacred Italian monophonic songs
14th century – most polyphonic
sung in processions of religious penitents and in gatherings for prayer

Cantiga
medieval monophonic song in spanish or portuguese
cantigas de santa maria
honor of virgin mary
Galician-Portuguese
have refrains
most verses in AAB form

Vielle
stringed instrument; early form of fiddle

Hurdy Gurdy
3 stringed vielle played mechanically with a hand crank
2 strings drone

psaltry
ancestor of harpsichord and piano
strings attached to frame over a wooden sounding board
players pluck the strings

transverse flute
similar to modern flute
made from wood or ivory
no keys, only holes

shawn
double reed instrument similar to oboe

piper and tabor
left hand fingered a high whistle
right hand beat small drum with stick

portative organ
played by one hand while other worked the bellows
one set of pipes
small enough to be carried around

Positive Organ
placed on a table
assistant pumped bellows as music played

Carole
medieval circle or line dance
monophonic song that accompanied it
instrumentalists also participated
popular dance in France

Estampie
most common medieval instrument dance
several sections, played twice but with different endings
first : open (ouvert) or incomplete
second: closed (clos) or complete
triple meter

Instampie
14th century Italian relative of estampie
same form, with repeating sections,
but sections are longer
meter duple or compound