Chapter 5- Ancient Greece

Trojan War
conflict may have had it origins in economic rivalry between Mycenae and Troy

Homer
a poet that wrote Iliad and the Odyssey in 750 B.C, he was a blind poet who wandered from village to village, singing of heroic deeds

Strait
narrow water passages, that connect the Mediterranean and Black Seas

Marathon
a plain north of Athens, in 490 B.C.

Themistocles
the Athenian leader, knew that this victory was only temporary and urged the Athenians to build a fleet of warships and prepare other defenses

Delain League
an alliance with other Greek city-states

Pericles
Because the economy thrived and the government became more democratic, this time period is often referred to as the Age of Pericles.

Alliance
a formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another’s defense

Stipend
fixed salary, to men who held public office. This reform poor men to serve in government

Socrates
one of the first philosophers. He would pose a series of questions to his students and challenge them to examine the implications of their answers

Aristotle
Plato’s most famous student developed his own ideas about government. Analyzed all forms of government. In the end, he favorite

Sophocles
one of the greatest Athenian playwrights, famous for writing tragedies

Herodotus
stressed the importance of research during his writings, and hated biased and conflicting accounts throughout history

Peloponnesus
(A Greek city-state) The region that lies in southern Greece where the Spartans conquered Laconia

Solon
Appointed archon (chief officer) by Athenians and given free hand to make reforms. He outlawed dept slavery, and freed those who had already been sold into slavery for dept.

Cleisthenes
set up the council of 500 which prepared laws for the assembly and supervised the day-to-day work of government. He made the assembly a genuine legislature (law making body)

Philip of Macedonia
King of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great. Defeated Athens and Thebes and then brought all Greece under his control. (Battle of Chacronea)

Stoicism
a new school of philosophy urged people to avoid desires and disappointments by accepting calmly what life brought

Archimedes
most famous scientist, applied principles of physics to make practical inventions like level and pulley

Hippocrates
Greek physician that studied causes of illness and look for cures. His Hippocratic oath set ethical standards for doctors

Heliocentric
sun centered, solar system was not accepted by most scientists until almost 2,000 year later

How did trade contribute to the development of Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations?
Minoan- adapted to their culture and ideas to sea trade without it they wouldn’t have contact with the outside world.
Mycenaean-adapted their culture of Minoan to them and flourished in the sea trade (Dominated Aegean World)

What values of the ancient Greeks are found in the poems of Homer?
1. They learned though trade, Minoans and Mycenaean learned ideas and technology from Egypt and Mesopotamia
2. Mycenaean passed on writing, legends, and other cultural features to late Greeks
3. The values were that the heroes in the poem (Homer’s poems) tell the honor, courage, and eloquence.

Identify two ways that geography influenced Greece
-Water and mountains divided the lands, Greeks formed separate city-states
-The need for fertile land pushed the Greeks to expand overseas

How did the Phalanx affect Greek society and government?
Since ordinary citizens formed the phalanx, class differences were reduce. The citizens who worked in a phalanx developed a sense of unity

Describe the system of education in
-Spartans
-Athens
For
Spartans: at the age of 7 Spartan boys received strict military training
and
Athens: Athenian boys learned reading, writing, music, poetry, public speaking, and military and athletic skills

What cultural ties united the Greek world?
The Greek shared the same myth, language, and religious beliefs

Describe the effects of the Persian Wars:
Athenians emerged from the war as the most powerful city-state in Greek. They organized the Delain League, alliance with other Greek city-states to go against Persia.

How did Pericles contribute to Athenian Greatness?
The economy thrived and the government became more democratic. Because of his skill and intelligence his time of rule is often known as the Age of Pericles. (he created direct democracy, jury and stipend)

How did growth of Athenian power lead to war?
Athens’ influence began to dominate the other city-states of the Greek area. They city proceeded to conquer all of Greek except for Sparta and its allies, and became know as the Athenians Empire. This caused Sparta to take actions against them

Why did Plato reject democracy as a form of government? What did he say the idea form of government was?
Plato rejected Athenian democracy because it had condemned Socrates. Plato’s ideal state the gov’t would be divided into workers, soldiers, and philosophers, and the king would be chosen from that class.

How were Greek play preformed? What were the topics of Greek poetry and plays?
Greek’s play were stage outdoors in theaters cut into the sides of hills. Little scenery was used but actors wore elaborate costumes and masks. A chorus accompanied the action on stage. They explored morals, social issues, and the relationship between people and the gods

What was the extend of Alexander’s vast empire?
Alexander’s empire stretched from Greece to Northern India and included Persia, Palestine, Asia minor and Egypt.

How was Alexander the Great able to conquer the Persian Empire?
He was a military genius and had a great army and he knew how to use it

What advantages did he have in his campaign, and how effective were his strategies?
Military Cultures: he came from a culture where militaristic actions came with rewards

Why did the Persians lose the war? (What did Alexander know they would do)
The Persian lost the war because of money-no army travel without getting paid. Alexander the Great had really good luck for finding things he can pay to his army.

In long term, How did Alexander ‘s conquest of Persia change the world, and what was his major failing?
He conquest from Greek to Near East and his major failing was that he was crazy (insane) and he also had no heir to take over for him