Chapter 7: Characteristics of World Literature

styles of Folklore
Fables, legends, mythology

Fables
In prose or verse to point to a moral; Characters are frequently animals

legends
Fictional stories once believed to have been true and handed down as historical tradition; an exaggeration of individuals and improbable events

Mythology
An anonymous work having roots in primitive folk belief; presents supernatural episodes to interpret natural events.

Styles of Fiction
Fantasy, Science fiction, utopian fiction, dystopian fiction

Fantasy
A conscious breaking free from reality

Science fiction
A form of fantasy in which scientific facts, assumptions, or hypotheses for the basis of adventures in the future, other dimensions, or under new variants of scientific law

Utopian Fiction
Describes an imaginary ideal world

Dystopian fiction
Seeks to point out what is wring with a seemingly perfection situation or condition; offers alternation or negative new

Styles of Poetry
Beat poetry, confessional, metaphysical, pastoral, lyrical

Beat Poetry
American poets in 1950s and 1960s in romatic rebellion against the culture and value system of the united states

Confessional
Focuses on poet’s private experiences and personal feelings

Metaphysical
Philosophical poetry, 17th century

Pastoral
Poem dealing with rustic life

Lyrical
Showing personal feelings of a first person speaker; descended from poems sung with a lyre

Styles of nonfiction
Biography, autobiography, essay

Biography
Written stories about someone’s real life and events that happened in it

Autobiography
Person’s life as written by that person

Essay
A prose composition that explicates a topic

Homer
Author of two epics, Iliad and the Odessey

Chaucer
Authory of the Canterbury Tales, one of the greatest epic works of world literature. Used English when court poetry was still mostly written in Anglo-Norman or Latin

Shakespeare
Known for use of the variety of literary elements: Puns, dramatic irony, foreshadowing, soliloquies, and anachronisms

Wordsworth
Published Lyrical Ballads, the first great work of the English Romantic movement. Changed poetry forever by the decision to use common language in his poetry instead of artificial poetic diction

Browning
Most famous female poet in English History. Famous for Sonnets from the Portuguese, a sequence of 44 sonnets recording the growth of her love for her husband

Dickens
Known for his characterization, psychological depth

Hawthorne
Leader in the development of the short story as a distinctive American genre.

Generally pessimistic, emphasizes allegory and symbolism

Emerson
Transcendentalist rooted in American romanticism and puritanism. Emphasize higher individualism, spiritual nature of reality, importance of self reliance, and existence of an unifying over-soul

Dickinson
candid insights into the author’s own state of consciousness and speculations of live and death.

Twain
American realist who wrote in 19th century America when social and political issues included industrialization, slavery, and regionalism. Wrote Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn. Introduced Colloquial speech into American fiction

Hughes
Harlem Renaissance author, known for his poems on black themes in jazz rhythms and with idiomatic phrases.

Wolfe
Revolutionized modern fiction as one of the pioneers of the stream-of-consciousness writing technique which allows readers to look directly into the flow of thoughts and images in a character’s mind.

Poe
Author of Gothic Literature, famous for horror takes and is credited with inventing the detective story, as well as for writing poetry with a prominent use of rhythms, alliteration, and assonance that gives it a strong musical quality

Hemingway
Expressed the feelings of the loss generation – war-wounded people disillusioned by the loss of faith and hope. Emotions are held at arms length; only bare happenings are recorded

Faulkner
novelist known for works about the Northern Mississippi area

Hurston
Folklorist and anthropologist who gathered examples of dialects of the south before they died out. She included them in her works

Morrison
American author who was awarded the Nobel prize for literature in 1993. Works explored the experience and roles of black women in a racist and male dominated society

Ibsen
Norway author who depicted the poverty and economic hardships of poverty in plays. Known for experimenting with realistic plays exploring social issues related to middle-class life

Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Often considered the father of magical realism, author of the novel One Hundred Years of Solitude.

Ancient and Classic
Included epics, lyric poetry, dramatic plays, comedies, and tragedies and the origin of the novel. Provides an element of stability. Proponents of the Ancients believed the giants of Greece and Rome had established the standards and provided models never to be excelled

Medieval
Exploration of Biblical themes and stores and contributed to the development of hymns, mystery plays, and religious poetry written by saints and clerics.Secular authors wrote courtly love, travel to far away lands, satirical poetryIn the east, religious texts, historical narratives, genealogies.

Renaissance
Renewed interest in the classics and a rise in humanist philosophy including a belief in self, human worth, and individual dignity. Changes in ideas about science, religion, and politics were reflected in literacy topics

Neoclassicism
Attitude which dominated life and art during the 18th century. Respect for order, reason and rules. Viewed humans as limited and imperfect. Valued intellect as more important than emotions, society more than the individual

Romanticism
19th century literary period in which writers looked to nature for inspiration, idealized the past, celebrated the individual, and emphasized emotion

Transcendentalism
mid 19th century literature rooted in post-Kantian idealism philosophy and began as a protest against culture and society. Believes that an ideal spiritual state transcends the physical and empirical and is realized only through individual intuition rather than established religions

Realism
19th century literature based on careful observations of ordinary life. often focused on middle and lower classes of society and sought to present life objectively

Naturalism
Extreme form of realism which depicts life objectively and precisely, without idealization.

Characters are victims of environmental forces and internal drives that are beyond their comprehension and control

Surrealism
Began in the 1920s. Features the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapostions, and non sequitur. Regarded as an expression of the philosophical movement

Modernism
emerged shortly after WWI. Marked by intentional break with tradition through reactions against established religious, political, and social views.

The world is subject to perception and there is no absolute truth. AKA “lost generation”

Ballad
Supernatural often played an important part of events, physical courage and love were frequent themes, and incidents usually happened to common people. Action is developed largely through dialog and tragic situations are presented with simplicity.

Tall Tales
A kind of humorous tale common on the American frontier which uses realistic detail, a literal manner, and common speech to recount extravagantly impossible happenings, usually resulting from the superhuman abilities of a character. Think Paul Bunyan and Davy Crockett

Trickster stories
short narratives that use animal characters with human features to convey folk wisdom and to help people understand human nature and human behavior.

Fairy Tales
Story relating to mysterious pranks and adventures of supernatural spirits who manifest themselves in the form of diminutive human beings. They characteristically contain: supernatural wisdom and foresight, mischievous temperament, power to regulate human affairs for good or evil, and the capacity to change into any shape at any time.

Epics
Long poem about the exploits of heroic figures throughout the invocation of a muse and telling a story with which readers or listeners are already familiar

Invocation of a muse
In which a writer requests divine help in composing his work