CHAPTER According to Sekaran and Bougie (2009), sample





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In this chapter, we highlighted the research methodology applied in this study
including the research design, unit of analysis, sample size, sampling
technique whereas, measurement, data collection and data analysis.



To achieve the objectives of this study, we are using cross-sectional design by
using quantitative method in conducting the study. The cross-sectional survey
will be used because the data collection will be collected at a particular time
to answer all of the research objectives (Sekaran & Bougie, 2009).
Furthermore, the quantitative research method will be used in this study which
is fully relies on the primary data collected in the survey conducted.



According to Sekaran and Bougie (2009), sample is
defined as a section of the population that a researcher will choose for the
purpose of the study. The larger the sample size, the lower the error will
occur when the study is conducted. Plus, the sample size is the number of
observations used to calculate the estimation of a given population. The
numbers of entities such as subject, people and elements in a subset of a
population selected for an analysis. The sample will represent the entire
population of the study. This is to allow to make the conclusion of the whole
population by studying and understanding the sample as underlined by Sekaran
& Bougie (2009).



Sampling can be defined as the process of selecting sufficient right elements
from the total of the population which make it easier to generalize the
properties or characteristics to the population elements (Sekaran & Bougie,
2009). In this study, the proposed sampling technique is probability sampling
because the element of the population has some probability being selected as
sample subject. There are six types of probability sampling which are simple
random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster
sampling, area sampling and double sampling. Thus, the probability sampling
that will be used in this study is stratified random sampling.

The stratified random sampling will be applied in this study to divide the
members of the populations within the overall population (Sekaran & Bougie,
2009). The stratified random sampling is used to highlight the specific strata
within the population. In this study, the members of the population which are
the local community’s living in Kinabalu Park will be divide into several
strata to conduct the study. Then, some of the respondents were randomly
selected from the strata.

Furthermore, the target population for this study are the local communities who
is directly affected by the declaration of the UNESCO towards their
socio-economics. The populations included all the respondents who conducted
various businesses around the Kinabalu Park area.


3.4       SAMPLE

The total of
respondent that are going to be observed in three village that nearby the
Kinabalu Park; which is Bundu Tuhan, that consists of three
village, Kampung JKDB Pekan Kundasang with the population of 400 villagers, Kampung Mesilou
with the population of 300 villagers and, Kampung Gondohon with the population
of 543 villagers. The sample size will be 60 respondents from Kampung JKDB
Pekan Kundasang, 45 respondents from Kampung Mesilou and 81 respondents from
Kampung Gondohon. This
measurement was based on the Research Methods for Business by Umar Sekaran and
Roger Bougie (pg.268)



The research will be used sampling technique
of Cluster. The Cluster Sampling Techniques refers to the collection of the data
that often used in the studies of people and population. This sampling
techniques is useful as there are obvious a naturally occurring clusters of



The study measurement consists of three parts.
Due to the language limitation understanding, the questionnaire was written in
Bahasa Malaysia and English to convenience the respondent to read. The
subdivision of the question was like:

Part I:
Background of the Respondent

Demographic variables questionnaire includes
age, gender, village, marital status and years of staying at the place.

Part II:
Awareness Towards the Declaration of Kinabalu Park as the UNESCO World Heritage

This part was concern with the local people
awareness towards the world class recognition that have been made towards their
tourism area and activities. All the dependent variables will be measured by
using Likert Scale with

Strongly disagree
Neutral/Neither agree nor disagree
Strongly agree


Part III:
Involvement in the Tourism Activity

The questionnaire in Part III consists of the involvement of the
respondent, their families or their relatives in tourism activities. This part
was concerned with their activities and contribution in this field, their
economic status after the declaration of UNESCO World Heritage as compared with
the time during the establishment of the National Park and the impact towards
their daily life. All the dependent variables will be
measured by using Likert Scale with

6.    Strongly disagree

7.    Disagree

8.    Neutral/Neither agree nor disagree

9.    Agree

10. Strongly agree

Part IV: Development of

The questionnaire in part III was the question about the
improvement of the infrastructure in the tourism and local community’s area
since the declaration. All the independent variables will be measured
by using Likert Scale with



agree nor disagree



3.7       Data

of data were taken from the primary data and secondary data. Primary data is
received directly from the respondent from the questionnaire of the respondent,
which is the villagers of this three village. While the secondary data were
received from the journal, articles and internet websites. Those secondary data
only refer to the suitable data that meet the objectives of the study. Most of
the data collected from the secondary data is related with the objectives of
the study.

3.8       Data Analysis

Descriptive Analysis

case study used the SPSS Version 22.0 and used the frequency techniques, the
mean, variance and standard deviation that provide descriptive analysis of

Analysis (Based on objective)


achieving the objective of the study, which is to identify the effect of UNESCO declaration towards the socio-economic
growth of the local communities,the researcher used Spearman Correlation
analysis to identify the effects. Second and third objective is to determine
what kind of activities being done by the local communities around Kinabalu
Park and to assess on how much the declaration gives impact to the
socio-economic growth., the researcher used the Kruskal-Wallis test, that
equivalent to the one-way ANOVA and allow the possible differences between two
or more group to be examined (SPSS Ver.22)