CHAPTER THREE 3.0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, we highlighted the research methodology applied in this studyincluding the research design, unit of analysis, sample size, samplingtechnique whereas, measurement, data collection and data analysis.
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGNTo achieve the objectives of this study, we are using cross-sectional design byusing quantitative method in conducting the study. The cross-sectional surveywill be used because the data collection will be collected at a particular timeto answer all of the research objectives (Sekaran & Bougie, 2009).Furthermore, the quantitative research method will be used in this study whichis fully relies on the primary data collected in the survey conducted. 3.2 UNIT OF ANALYSISAccording to Sekaran and Bougie (2009), sample isdefined as a section of the population that a researcher will choose for thepurpose of the study. The larger the sample size, the lower the error willoccur when the study is conducted.
Plus, the sample size is the number ofobservations used to calculate the estimation of a given population. Thenumbers of entities such as subject, people and elements in a subset of apopulation selected for an analysis. The sample will represent the entirepopulation of the study. This is to allow to make the conclusion of the wholepopulation by studying and understanding the sample as underlined by Sekaran& Bougie (2009). 3.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUESampling can be defined as the process of selecting sufficient right elementsfrom the total of the population which make it easier to generalize theproperties or characteristics to the population elements (Sekaran & Bougie,2009). In this study, the proposed sampling technique is probability samplingbecause the element of the population has some probability being selected assample subject.
There are six types of probability sampling which are simplerandom sampling, systematic sampling, stratified random sampling, clustersampling, area sampling and double sampling. Thus, the probability samplingthat will be used in this study is stratified random sampling.The stratified random sampling will be applied in this study to divide themembers of the populations within the overall population (Sekaran & Bougie,2009). The stratified random sampling is used to highlight the specific stratawithin the population. In this study, the members of the population which arethe local community’s living in Kinabalu Park will be divide into severalstrata to conduct the study. Then, some of the respondents were randomlyselected from the strata.
Furthermore, the target population for this study are the local communities whois directly affected by the declaration of the UNESCO towards theirsocio-economics. The populations included all the respondents who conductedvarious businesses around the Kinabalu Park area. 3.4 SAMPLESIZEThe total ofrespondent that are going to be observed in three village that nearby theKinabalu Park; which is Bundu Tuhan, that consists of threevillage, Kampung JKDB Pekan Kundasang with the population of 400 villagers, Kampung Mesilouwith the population of 300 villagers and, Kampung Gondohon with the populationof 543 villagers.
The sample size will be 60 respondents from Kampung JKDBPekan Kundasang, 45 respondents from Kampung Mesilou and 81 respondents fromKampung Gondohon. Thismeasurement was based on the Research Methods for Business by Umar Sekaran andRoger Bougie (pg.268) 3.5 SAMPLING TECHNIQUEThe research will be used sampling techniqueof Cluster. The Cluster Sampling Techniques refers to the collection of the datathat often used in the studies of people and population. This samplingtechniques is useful as there are obvious a naturally occurring clusters ofunits. 3.
6 MEASUREMENT/ IMPLEMENTATIONThe study measurement consists of three parts.Due to the language limitation understanding, the questionnaire was written inBahasa Malaysia and English to convenience the respondent to read. Thesubdivision of the question was like:Part I:Background of the RespondentDemographic variables questionnaire includesage, gender, village, marital status and years of staying at the place.Part II:Awareness Towards the Declaration of Kinabalu Park as the UNESCO World HeritageSiteThis part was concern with the local peopleawareness towards the world class recognition that have been made towards theirtourism area and activities.
All the dependent variables will be measured byusing Likert Scale with Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral/Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Part III:Involvement in the Tourism ActivityThe questionnaire in Part III consists of the involvement of therespondent, their families or their relatives in tourism activities. This partwas concerned with their activities and contribution in this field, theireconomic status after the declaration of UNESCO World Heritage as compared withthe time during the establishment of the National Park and the impact towardstheir daily life. All the dependent variables will bemeasured by using Likert Scale with6. Strongly disagree7. Disagree8. Neutral/Neither agree nor disagree9. Agree10. Strongly agreePart IV: Development ofInfrastructureThe questionnaire in part III was the question about theimprovement of the infrastructure in the tourism and local community’s areasince the declaration.
All the independent variables will be measuredby using Likert Scale with1. Stronglydisagree2. Disagree3.
Neutral/Neitheragree nor disagree4. Agree5. Stronglyagree3.7 DataCollectionCollectionof data were taken from the primary data and secondary data. Primary data isreceived directly from the respondent from the questionnaire of the respondent,which is the villagers of this three village.
While the secondary data werereceived from the journal, articles and internet websites. Those secondary dataonly refer to the suitable data that meet the objectives of the study. Most ofthe data collected from the secondary data is related with the objectives ofthe study. 3.8 Data Analysis3.
8.1Descriptive AnalysisThecase study used the SPSS Version 22.0 and used the frequency techniques, themean, variance and standard deviation that provide descriptive analysis ofdata.3.
8.2 InferentialAnalysis (Based on objective) Inachieving the objective of the study, which is to identify the effect of UNESCO declaration towards the socio-economicgrowth of the local communities,the researcher used Spearman Correlationanalysis to identify the effects. Second and third objective is to determinewhat kind of activities being done by the local communities around KinabaluPark and to assess on how much the declaration gives impact to thesocio-economic growth., the researcher used the Kruskal-Wallis test, thatequivalent to the one-way ANOVA and allow the possible differences between twoor more group to be examined (SPSS Ver.22)