CHAPTER 3 Introduction:This chapter first describes the methodologyof the research, such as research method, community, sample and samplingmethod, and then the research tools (introducing, describing its features,validity and reliability, and components) are examined and Finally, the methodof research implementation and statistical methods of data analysis areexamined.Research plan:According to the research title, which studies the effect of onlinemarketing on customer behavior, it is clear that the present study is adescriptive (case study). Also, according to the study subject, its resultswill be used to solve problems and the results will be used for the Digikalacompany, human resources and marketers of Digikala company, the brand-namebusinesses, startups, other Marketers of other companies and readers are usingresearch results, The present research is also applicable in the target.Statistical population:The statistical population of the presentresearch, consists of all customers of Digikala Company who are ordering andpurchasing their products online. According to the calculations, the number of these people wasestimated to be 750. Thedemographic information of these people is shown belowFrequency distribution of samplebased on age range Percent Number Age range %4.
4 11 15-25 %38 95 26-35 %26.8 67 36-45 %19.6 49 46-55 %8.8 22 56-65 %2.
4 6 Upper than 65 %100 250 Total The results of the table show that %4.4 ofsample (11 people) are in the age range of 15 to 25, %38 of sample (95 people)are in the age range of 26 to 35, %26.8 of sample (67 people) are in the agerange of 36 to 45, %19.6 of sample (49 people) are in the age range of 46 to55, %8.
8 of sample (22 people) are in the age range of 56 to 65 and %2.4 ofsample (6 people) are in the age range of upper than 65 years old. Frequency distribution of samplebased on education degree Percent Number Education degree %3.6 9 Diploma %15.2 38 Associate %61.
2 153 Bachelor %12.4 31 Mastery %7.6 19 P.H.D %100 250 Total The results of the table show that %3.6 ofsample (9 people) have diploma degree, %15.2 of sample (38 people) haveassociate degree, %61.2 of sample (153 people) have bachelor degree, %12.
4 ofsample (31 people) have mastery degree and %7.6 of sample (19 people) have P.H.Ddegree.Statistical population and sample:The statistical population of the presentresearch, consists of all customers of Digikala Company who are ordering andpurchasing their products online. The sample of this study is 250 customers ofthe statistical community that selected using the Cochran sampling formula.Below is the sample selection process has shown: ü n = Minimum sample sizeü N = Statistical population sizeü t = The value of the normal variable of the unit corresponding tothe confidence level of ?-1 is 1.96.
ü e = Allowed error rate, equivalent 0.05ü p = Estimate of variable attribute ratioü q = 1- pThe number ofpeople in the statistical population is 750, that is N = 750. The value of Pand Z2 can also be approximated. Estimated error value equivalent 0.05 is considered.According to the population volume and using the Cochran sampling formula,finally the sample size was 250. Information gathering method:The main method of collecting information in this research isthrough a researcher-made questionnaire to measure the customers and consumersbehavior of products and goods introduced through online marketing. The otherpart of the research data is collected and analyzed through documentary,librarian, review surveys and previous research on the impact of onlinemarketing on customer behavior.
In the present research, the following methodsare also used to collect information and review them:ü Acquisition, checking and analysis of library information anddocuments, and surveys references about marketing, marketing approaches,Internet marketing, online marketing, consumer purchasing behavior, customerbehavior, and the relationship between these variables.ü Checking and study books about marketing, marketing approaches,Internet marketing, online marketing, consumer purchasing behaviors, customerbehavior, and the relationship between these variables, as well as otherfactors related to research. ü Use of analytical projects, marketing journals, economics journals,internal and external papers, dissertations and thesis related to researchtopic in relation to marketing concept, marketing approaches, internetmarketing, online marketing, consumer purchasing behavior, customer behavior,and the relationship between these variables.ü Sampling, highlighting existing information and databases, andsimilar approaches about marketing, marketing approaches, Internet marketing,online marketing, consumer purchasing behavior, customer behavior, and therelationship between these variables.
ü Use of the Internet and valid sites to collect relevant informationin the field of theoretical foundations related to the variables of research aswell as to review and record the research background in the relevant fields. Information gathering tool:To measure the effectiveness of onlinemarketing on customer behavior, a researcher-made questionnaire is used. Thequestionnaire has 36 questions and 6 subscales of marketing environment (1 to8), product features (9 to 13), security and trust (14 to 19), Promotionaloffers (20 to 26), prices (27 to 31) and ease of purchase (32 to 36) have beenmeasured. The score of this questionnaire is five degrees in the Likert scale,so that for I quite disagree (1), I disagree (2), I no idea (3), I agree (4)and I quite agree (5) score is considered Has been.It should be noted that the subscale of theInternet marketing environment from the research of Gagarz and Grovers (2003),the subscale of product features from Hokyo et al.
(2009), the subset ofsecurity and trust from Salisbury et al. (1998), the subsample of the proposedupgrade from Hakuqui research and Associates (2009), the subscale of the priceof Zochen and Dobbinsky (2003) and the subset of ease of purchase from theresearch of Stewal and W. (2009) have been extracted.To score each subscale, the scoresof the relevant questions are gathered and, finally, the total score of allquestions is considered as a general score. A higher score means theeffectiveness of online marketing on customer behavior. Validity andreliability of this questionnaire were 0.76 and 0.85, respectively.
Descriptive statistics of questionnaire questions:In the following tables, questions about the indicators of each ofthe six subsamples under consideration are presented. Online marketing environment Product Feature Security and trust Promotional offers Price Ease of purchase be better increasing awareness personal and financial information sales increase be cheap be easy be useful physical review safety creativity comparison Simplicity Be enjoyable be suitable information usage attraction discount purchase order better service fit to needs confidence convincing shopping times requirement search satisfaction quality lack of fear better suggestions affordability Traceability efficiency product variety good Shopping innovation feeling of security attraction security SpecificDefinition of Terms:Online marketing environment: It is important for marketers to maintaincustomers in a highly competitive Internet environment and estimate the size ofthe destination market. To meet customer expectations, including needs, wants,tastes and preferences, a site should be designed in a variety of ways andprovide users with a lot of facilities (Hakiko et al., 2014).
Product features: Generally, customers choose to buy a storethat maximizes their satisfaction with their quality. Products that need to betapped or tested with a sense of purchase are sold less through the internet,and therefore tangible and intangible are important features that should beconsidered in the Internet environment for products (Vijayasarathy, 2012). Security and Trust: Security is an important factor in increasingcustomer satisfaction. In cases where probabilities and dangers also exist, trustin the product will be of special significance.
Safety creates trust, and trustis the factor of success. Whatever the level of security and trust for aproduct is higher, the need for physical activity in buying gets less ande-shopping becomes easier (Coldman, 2016).Promotional offers: Promotion means all the things a marketerdoes to deliver a product from the factory to the client, including promotions,personal sales, public relations, public relations, or globalization andcommerce. Sales promotion can provide many benefits to customers, the mostobvious of which is financial savings. However, it can bring about factors suchas quality, convenience, value creation and entertainment for customers(Pithadia and Sharma, 2016). Price: The direct price in electronic purchasesthrough the Internet includes the purchase of hardware and software, as well aspayments for Internet subscription and updates, regardless of that price, theprice of the product in the traditional market, which is inherent It is aperceived financial risk for the product (Chen and Dubinsky, 2013). Ease of use: The belief of the user about how much use ofa particular system will be effortless and comfortable.
Ease of use is alsoexpressed in the literature on online concepts, usability or efficiency, whichincludes ease of tracing, ease of use, search performance, download speed, sitelayout, and ease of Internet shopping (Jaturavith, 2015). Questionnairefor measurement of online marketing impact on customer behavior I quite agree I agree No idea I disagree I quite disagree Item Indicator Row Online shopping is better than shopping at the store Marketing environment 1 Online shopping is useful for me 2 Online shopping is enjoyable for me 3 Online shopping offers better services to me 4 I am satisfied with the online websites I buy 5 Using the online shopping gives me the opportunity to buy more efficiently 6 Online Shopping has made innovation foe me 7 The online shopping environment has attracted me to online marketing sites shopping 8 Online markets have increased my awareness of the features of the products Product features 9 The products I buy from the Internet are suitable 10 The products I buy from the Internet are tailor-made to my needs 11 The products I buy from the Internet have high quality 12 The variety of Internet products is huge 13 Internet marketing sites are a safe place to provide my financial and personal information Security and trust 14 Online shopping is very safe 15 Online shopping websites do not misuse the customer’s personal information 16 I feel confident in providing my financial and personal information on online sales websites 17 When selling websites asking me for personal information, I’m not worried 18 The experience of good purchases of the Internet has increased my confidence in marketing sites 19 The high number of marketing sites indicates the high security of these sites Promotional offers 20 Online marketing sites are trusted for me 21 Online marketing offers more suggestions for increasing sales 22 Suggestions to increase sales on the Internet are more creative and fun 23 Suggestions for boosting sales on the Internet are appealing and impressive 24 Suggestions for increasing sales on the Internet are compelling for the customer 25 Internet marketing provides better suggestions for increasing of online customers 26 Online shopping are cheaper than store shopping Price 27 Comparing the price of products with other competitors on the Internet is fast 28 Online shopping will get great discounts 29 The trust of customers at the price of the Internet is affecting the frequency of purchasing products 30 Online shopping offer prices are tailored to the customer’s financial capability 31 Buying from internet marketing sites is easy Ease of purchase 32 You can simply use the web to find information about products 33 Purchase order is easily done on online marketing sites 34 Searching for requirements on online marketing sites is easy 35 The ability to track requests on online marketing sites is easy 36 Research methodology:In this research, the independent and dependent variables aredetermined initially by studying the tasks performed on the topic. For each ofthese variables, the secret variables are chosen to fully define theindependent and dependent variables. Then, for each of these hidden variables,several apparent variables are considered, and based on these apparentvariables, questions are designed and put into a researcher-made questionnairefor the statistical sample selected in the project. After collecting questionnaires,the data will enter into the statistical software and will examine thehypotheses set forth in the research.
Then, they interpret the results andcompare the results with studies done in this field. The theoretical framework of research:Offer Model: Customer behavior Online marketing environment Ease of use Price Promotional offers Security and Trust Product features Data analysis method:In the descriptive statistics section of the demographic charts andtables, the central tendencies (mean, mean, frequency) and dispersion tendency(variance, standard deviation) and inferential statistics are also used foranalysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The SPSS 23 software will use toanalyze the data.In analyzingthe hypotheses, the first analysis of covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was considered:ü Each person’s score must be independent of other people,in other words, any observation or measurement should not be affected by otherobservations or measurements. In this study, each of the variables wasindependently measured.ü The dependent variable is measured at the relative ordistant level, that means a continuous scale, not a class, in which alldependent variables are continuous in scale.
ü Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check normality. In below table,the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was conducted to examine the normality of thecustomer behavior variable. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test Dependent variable Sig Z 0.10 0.13 customer behavior The value ofthe significant level of the table shows that the assumption of normalizationfor the dependent variable is observed and parametric tests can be used.General stagesof statistical hypotheses test: Step 1: Defining the statistical hypothesesH0 and H1 based on the rules that will be stated.
If theresearch hypothesis has a specific boundary, H0 represents theclaim, otherwise the defect is defined in H1 and the researchhypothesis is in the form of the H1 statistical symbol will take. Itis certain that the assumptions H0 and H1 arecomplementary. Step 2: Determining the distribution ofstatistical sampling and the type of test statistic. The sampling distributiondepends on the estimated condition of the claimed parameter. Depending on whichtype of parameter is the research assumption, the sampling distribution,statistics, and test statistic will change. Step 3: Determine the surface area below thecurves H0 and H1 and calculate the critical value. Thesurface below the curves of H0 and H1 depends on thesampling distribution and the amount of ?.
A sequence or two sequences of thetest has a direct effect on the surface below the curve of the statisticalhypotheses. The rule is that H0 contains a confidence level and H1has a level equal to ?. The calculation of the standard value that the H0and H1 separators are numerically is another essential step in thisstep.
The standard value is extracted from the existing table based on the typeof test and the value of ?. This value is called a critical value, given itssign. The standard value and the required statistical table for its extractionare determined based on the statistics. Step 4: DecisionStage: At this stage, the amount of test statistic calculated in the secondstage is compared with the critical value in the third stage, if the teststatistic is placed in the acceptance zone H0, it is said that atthe level of confidence there is sufficient reason to accept the H0 hasit. Otherwise H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted at theerror level of ? percent. In general, the hypothesis test never proves thehypothesis.
Instead, they only interfere in the assertion that the hypothesesare rejected or rejected. Therefore, if the hypothesis is not rejected, this isnot the reason why this hypothesis is a correct hypothesis. It can be said thatthe hypothesis is now possible.Step 5: After confirmation or rejection of H0, the analyst must clearly state whether the research hypothesishas been accepted or rejected, and the researcher will never claim a proof ofresearch hypothesis or statistical hypotheses, but will be cautious in hisanalysis in an inductance.