CHAPTER continued to shape intellectual discourses in post-Cold


1.1       Introduction

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Terrorism has become one of the most
important concepts that have continued to shape intellectual discourses in post-Cold
War international system. This phenomenon has become a potent instrument in the
hands of renegade elements ‘privileged’ to bear arms within the boundaries of
states (Ayuba and Okafor, 2014). A phenomenon that is fast spreading, beyond
the West Coast to the Central African regional bloc with its evil and
catastrophic effects devastating lands and peoples. The paper hinges its
argument on the assumption that even though the insurrectionists have
consistently claimed origin in the Islamic faith, evidence have sustainably
proven otherwise.

The Boko Haram sect is alleged to have
killed over 5,000 people in various attacks since 2009. In tracing the origins
of the sect, Xan Rice wrote that “in northern Nigeria, Sharia law was already
in place before Boko Haram launched in 2002.But it was applied mildly and
failed to check the unbridled corruption, inequalities and unfairness. Poverty
levels were high and growing, and for most youthful people there were not many
job prospects. Boko Haram was founded on beliefs, but poor governance was the
catalyst for it to spread. If there had been appropriate governance and a
functioning state, Yusuf would have found it very difficult to succeed”. It was
further revealed that before Yusuf’s execution, Boko Haram had a microfinance
system, operated a farm and its own ruling councils and emirs, the followers
stretched far beyond Maiduguri and Borno state, across northern Nigeria, as
well as into neighbouring Niger, Cameroon and Chad. Ahmad Salkida, a journalist
with close links to the sect reported in an interview days before the death of
Yusuf, that he was growing increasingly militant and said “Democracy and the
current system of education must be changed otherwise this war that is yet to
start would continue for long” (Rice, 2012).

Violence, terrorism, insurgency and in
Northern Nigeria escalated with the extra-judicial killing of Boko Haram
leader, Muhammad Yusuf in 2009 at a detention facility in Maiduguri. He was
accused of trying to escape which necessitated his death according to the
Nigerian Police. The crises came to a head with the declaration of State of
Emergency by President Goodluck Jonathan on May 14, 2013 over three
North-Eastern states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe by invoking the provisions of
Section 305, sub-section 1 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of
Nigeria 1999, as amended. The erstwhile Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador
Olusegun Ashiru later explained that Adamawa was included in the emergency rule
because of its proximity to Cameroun and the need for the military to have a
wide area of coverage, to hinder the insurgents from having any hiding place
(Ikuomola, 2013). Analysts and scholars have come to the conclusions that the
aims and ambitions of the Boko Haram are unlimited compared to earlier groups
such as Maitatsine and Shiite Islamists. Albert Horsfall, a retired Director of
the Nigeria’s National Intelligence Agency (NIA) articulated that: “the
terrorists intend to stay in this country, establish themselves and then pursue
a political agenda. In the past we have dealt with such terrorist elements”
(Bassey, 2013).


1.2       Research Problem

Just few years ago, terrorism seemed to be
restricted to a few isolated places, such as Northern Ireland, the Basque
Country in Northern Spain, and some areas of the Middle East. Now especially
since September 11, 2001, with the destruction of the Twin Towers in New York
worldwide phenomenon (June, 2006:4). Indeed, the worldwide manifestation of
terrorism has been evident in Africa, but also in Nigeria. With particular
reference to Nigeria, the phenomenon has found expression in the emergence of
Boko Haram insurgency (2001-date). Since its advent, the sectarian insurgency
has wrecked immense havoc in the country, especially by “using explosives and
firearms with gruesome, fatal” consequences (Awake June, 2006:6).  A critical corollary of this violence is dire
humanitarian crisis that threatens human security in Nigeria. It is the need to
examine this development that has informed this paper.


1.3       Research Objectives

The study aims to examine the Geopolitics
of Terrorism and insurgency in North-eastern Nigeria.  In order to fulfil this purpose, the
following specific objectives will be utilized in the study:

establish the relationships and effects of terrorism and insurgency in
Northern eastern Nigeria making reference to boko haram insurgency
activities in that region.
To examine
the effect of terrorism and insurgency on the state of security of states
in the north East region.
To assess
the extent to which terrorism and insurgency has brought about
humanitarian crisis in the north east region.


1.4       Research Questions

What is
the relationship and the effects of terrorism and insurgency activities of
boko had an in the north east region?
To what
extent has terrorism and insurgency of the boko-haram sect affected the
security of states in the north east region?
To what
extent has terrorism and insurgency brought about humanitarian crisis in
the north east region?


1.5       Research Scope

The population of the study is north east
region of Nigeria focusing on insurgency activities in that region and
measuring their adverse effect and impact on that region and those states
affected as well. However, the relationship between terrorism and insurgency
will be measured with reference to the boko-haram sects.


1.6       Significance of the Study

The significance of the paper derives from
the fact that it is expected to proffer newer insights into the on-going
discourse on the Boko Haram crisis. Most recent studies on the subject matter
have not adequately addressed the humanitarian consequences and security
matters of the sectarian phenomenon (Eze, 2013; Nchi, 2013; Sani, 2013). In
effect, there appears to be little or no conscious attempts to situate the
humanitarian effects of the raging insurgency with a view to underscoring their
implications for national security in Nigeria. Among other things, this paper
seeks to fill this apparent gap in the literature in order to add to the extant
knowledge on the subject matter.

1.7       Research

research method will be used in carrying out this study. A critical examination
of the dramatic evolution of ethnic militant groups to the rise of a more
violent Boko Haram will be analyzed using findings from secondary sources. The
sources include written documents such as government publications, letters,
correspondence, documentaries and newspapers. Moreover, this study will depend
on secondary sources such as books, journals, conference proceedings and
internet sources which are to be explored to enrich this work. Primary sources
of data from questionnaire will also be used in this research work to examine
the geopolitics of terrorism and insurgency in North-eastern Nigeria. Furthermore,
this research work will also depend largely on archival materials to gather
relevant materials on the study. Interpretations and useful inferences will be
drawn from the analysis which formed the basis of conclusion and


1.8       Limitations
of the Study

In the
course of the research work, the problem that might confront the researcher is
not the scarcity of materials but its availability some of which are bias in
their presentation. More so, this research work is contemporary and politically
sensitive.  The researcher therefore might confront with the problem of
interpretation of the actions of terrorist groups as well as counter-terrorist
approach of the Nigerian government as some of the policies initiated are still
an on-ongoing process. Finally, there is the question of time and fund which
may serve as limitations to this research.  Nevertheless, these limitation
factors will greatly be managed to make the research work more objective in its


1.9       Definition of
Operating Terms

Terrorism: is violence or the threat of violence directed against civilians
for the purpose of creating intense fear, which the terrorist hopes to exploit
to attain political or ideological goals. Terrorism can be perpetrated by
individuals, groups, or governments. What distinguishes terrorism from assault
or murder is that terrorism is intended to intimidate and create mayhem, to
inspire terror. It’s terrorism when a suicide bomber blows himself up in a
crowded bus, in that the violence is directed not against soldiers on a
battlefield but against civilians going about their everyday lives.

Insurgency: is a rebellion against authority. It is also an organized movement
aimed at the overthrow or destruction of a constituted government through the
use of subversion, espionage, terrorism and armed conflict.

humanitarian: is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby humans
practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans, in order
to better humanity for both moral and logical reasons. It is the philosophical
belief in movement toward the improvement of the human race in a variety of
areas, used to describe a wide number of activities relating specifically to
human welfare.

Geopolitics: is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on
international politics and international relations. Geopolitics is a method of
studying foreign policy to understand, explain and predict international
political behavior through geographical variables.

Boko Haram: Boko Haram, referred to by themselves as al-Wil?ya al-Isl?miyya
Gharb Afr?qiyyah (Arabic: ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????, (Islamic State West
Africa Province, ISWAP) and Jam?’at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da’wah wa’l-Jih?d
(Arabic: ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????, “Group of the People of Sunnah
for Preaching and Jihad”), they are also an Islamic extremist terrorist
group based in north-eastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern