Chapter 1INTRODUCTIONInthis Chapter, webriefly discuss about the basics of brain.
1.1Brain’The brain isan organ thatserves as the center of the nervous system inall vertebrate andmost invertebrate animals.The brain is situated n the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision.
The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate’s body.” In a human,the cerebralcortex contains roughly 15–33 billion neurons, eachconnected by synapses toseveral thousand other neurons. ‘These neurons interconnect with one another bymeans of long protoplasmic fiberscalled axons,which carry trains of signal pulses called action abilities todista’nt parts of the brain or body directing specific recipient cells.1″Physiologically, ‘the function of the brain is to exert centralized control over the other organsof the body.” The brain acts on the rest of the body both by generating patternsof muscle activity and by driving the emission of chemicals called hormones.This unified control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes inthe environment.
Some basic types of responsiveness such as bemediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia,but eruditepurposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires theinformation assimilating capabilities of a centralized brain.The operations ofindividual brain cells are now understood in considerable detail but the waythey cooperate in ensembles of millions is yet to be solved. Recent modelsin modern neuroscience treat the brain as a biological computer, very differentin machinery from an electronic computer, but similar in the sense that itacquires information from the surrounding world, stores it, and processes it ina variety of ways.
This article compares theproperties of brains across the entire range of animal species, with the greatestattention to vertebrates. It deals with the human brain insofaras it shares the properties of other brains. The ways in which the human braindiffers from other brains are covered in the human brain article. Severaltopics that might be covered here are instead covered there because much more canbe said about them in a human context. The most important is brain disease and the effects ofbrain damage, that are covered in the human brain article.CONTENTS Chapter title Page No1.
INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 BRAIN1.2 FUNCTIONS OFBRAIN 2-82. BRAIN IMPLANTS 2.1 DEFINITION 9 2.2 PURPOSE 10 2.
3 USES 103. LITERATURE SURVEY 11-17 4.DEEP BRAIN STIMULATOR 4.1 COMPONENTS 18 4.
2 APPLICATIONS 19-235. COCHLEAR IMPLANTS 5.1 PARTS 25 5.2 SURGICAL PROCEDURE 26 5.3EFFICIENCY 27 5.4USAGE 27 5.
5 COST 27 5.6 MANUFACTURERS 28 6. CONCLUSION 29 REFERENCES 30JSSMahavidyapeetha Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering (SJCE), JSSSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY Mysuru – 570 006 SEMINAR REPORT ON”VIRTUALSURGERY”DEPARTMENTOF INSTRUMENTATION TECHNOLOGY ByAmraRumanSRNO.P170608Underthe Guidance ofDR.K.UMARANIAssociateProfessor, Department of Instrumentation Technology, SJCE, Mysuru.