Chapter in modern neuroscience treat the brain as

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

In
this Chapter, webriefly discuss about the basics of brain.

1.1Brain

‘The brain is
an organ that
serves as the center of the nervous system in
all vertebrate and
most invertebrate animals.
The brain is situated n the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision.
The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate’s body.” In a human,
the cerebral
cortex contains roughly 15–33 billion neurons, each
connected by synapses to
several thousand other neurons. ‘These neurons interconnect with one another by
means of long protoplasmic fibers
called axons,
which carry trains of signal pulses called action abilities to
dista’nt parts of the brain or body directing specific recipient cells.1″

Physiologically, ‘the function of the brain is to exert centralized control over the other organs
of the body.” The brain acts on the rest of the body both by generating patterns
of muscle activity and by driving the emission of chemicals called hormones.
This unified control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in
the environment.
Some basic types of responsiveness such as  be
mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia,
but erudite
purposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires the
information assimilating capabilities of a centralized brain.

The operations of
individual brain cells are now understood in considerable detail but the way
they cooperate in ensembles of millions is yet to be solved. Recent models
in modern neuroscience treat the brain as a biological computer, very different
in machinery from an electronic computer, but similar in the sense that it
acquires information from the surrounding world, stores it, and processes it in
a variety of ways.

This article compares the
properties of brains across the entire range of animal species, with the greatest
attention to vertebrates. It deals with the human brain insofar
as it shares the properties of other brains. The ways in which the human brain
differs from other brains are covered in the human brain article. Several
topics that might be covered here are instead covered there because much more can
be said about them in a human context. The most important is brain disease and the effects of
brain damage, that are covered in the human brain article.CONTENTS

 

Chapter                  title                                                   Page No

1.
INTRODUCTION                                                                                 1                                                         1.1 BRAIN

1.2 FUNCTIONS OF
BRAIN                                                                       2-8

2.
  BRAIN IMPLANTS    

 2.1 DEFINITION                                                                 
                        9

 2.2 PURPOSE                                                                        
                               10

 2.3 USES                                                                           
                           10

3.   LITERATURE SURVEY                                               
                  11-17          

4.
DEEP BRAIN STIMULATOR                                       

 4.1 COMPONENTS                                                  
                                          18

 4.2 APPLICATIONS                                                                
                        19-23

5.  COCHLEAR IMPLANTS    

 5.1 PARTS                                                                        
                        25

 5.2 SURGICAL PROCEDURE                                                              26

  5.3
EFFICIENCY                                                              
                    27

  5.4
USAGE                                                                                              27

  5.5 COST                                                                          
                      27

 5.6 MANUFACTURERS                                                
                       28                      

6.        CONCLUSION                                                                             29

          REFERENCES                                                                               30JSS
Mahavidyapeetha Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering (SJCE), JSS
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY Mysuru – 570 006  SEMINAR REPORT ON”VIRTUAL
SURGERY”DEPARTMENT
OF INSTRUMENTATION TECHNOLOGY ByAmra
RumanSR
NO.P170608Under
the Guidance ofDR.K.UMARANIAssociate
Professor, Department of Instrumentation Technology, SJCE, Mysuru.