Chapter mitigate the impact of earthquake. Through literature

Chapter 2 gives the perimeter ofthe subject matter. Disaster preparedness and risk management pertaining toearthquake is listed through literature reviews from other research and factsthat have been made by other authors.

This research gives in depthunderstanding on the role of disaster management planning in order to mitigatethe impact of earthquake. Through literaturestudies, the basic disaster management planning that should be applied tominimize the impact of earthquakes is listed. Literature reviews on relatedresearch by previous researcher are made to acknowledge the methods of datacollection that is preferably used for this type of research. In addition, thestudies are also made to know on the process of analyzing and synthesizing thedata.

An earthquake is a sudden, rapidshaking of the earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath theearth’s surface. The function of earthquake is to release the accumulatedstrain caused by an abrupt shift of rock along fracture in the earth or byvolcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth(Milch, 2010).There are basicallyfour (4) types of earthquakes which have been classified by their mode ofgeneration.

The most common are tectonic earthquakes, which happen when rocksbreak suddenly in response to the various geological forces. The second kindaccompanies volcanic eruption. The third type are collapse earthquakes, whichcould be triggered by the collapse of the roof of the mine and cavern, orlandslides. The last one is the man-made earthquake, which are produced by thedetonation of chemical or nuclear devices (Bolt, 2003).Sabahhas recorded the most earthquake in Malaysia since 1897. This consist of twodestructive earthquakes in 1976 and 1991 which caused substantial damage.

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TheNorth-West Sabah is influenced by the spreading and opening of the South ChinaSea Basin while the Eastern Sabah influenced by the Cagayan Ridge Volcanic Arcin te NE, the Sulu Trench and the Sulu Sea Volcanic Arc.Usually, the earthquake occurred in Sabah over a wide area. There arethree (3) main seismic zones which have a high concentration of earthquake,namely:                               i.           The Central – North (Ranau) Zone,                             ii.           The Labuk Bay – Sandakan Basin Zone, and                           iii.

           The Dent – Semporna Peninsula ZoneLast twoyears on 5 June 2015, a moderate earthquake with a 6.0 magnitude hadstricken Sabah. It is the strongest earthquake that has hit Malaysia in 39years since 1976 Lahad Datu earthquake.

 The earthquake occurred due tostrike-slip fault mechanism with the epicenter depth of 10 km. Tremors werefelt in Ranau, Kundasang, Tambunan, Pendalaman, Tuaran, Kota Kinabalu and KotaBelud in Sabah.Kajian Gempabumi Sabah 2015 site visit program involving severaluniversities in Malaysia was successfully held from 15th-17th June 2015.According to Dr. Mariyana (2015) during the post-earthquake visit toKundasang-Ranau affected areas, she noticed that there was structural damageappeared, unstable ground conditions and yet no water supply.

A year later, another visit from Earth Observatory of Singapore hasfound buildings with cracked foundations, caved-in ceilings, and broken pillarsthat result from the strong ground-shaking motions. The heavy rains thatfollowed after the earthquake caused debris flow, further damaging the area’sbridges and buildings. The quake also triggered massive rock avalanches onMount Kinabalu.