CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY4.1Exploratory Study ResearchTheconcept used in this study is based on exploratory study on waqf framework byIIUM Endowment Fund (IEF). The exploratory concept seems relevant to the areaof study that rarely discussed from different perspective for example the studyfrom different objective while there is a lot study at the same demography.
This study is to explore the waqf framework model used by IEF for its selected waqf products. While this is inprogress, this paper will explain how the model works in reality throughseveral diagram and explanation. Then a survey among the staff will beconducted to test their awareness of the current waqf concept used in the frameworkand operation practiced and gaining more information to answer the firstresearch objective.
Related to that, this study also in accordance with thesecond research objectives will explore the contributions (collection anddisbursement made by waqf product in 2016) done through the waqf model applied.As the general maqasid (objectives)of waqf in Islam to serve the publicneed, IEF has its own objectives that should not contradict with that. However,IEF will specifically serve IIUM and the needy in IIUM rather than the publicin general as it has its own objective which is bounded by IIUM thus it onlyserves just for the IIUM students. A brief review has been done that theprimary target for the benefit of waqf of IEF is the IIUM students itself. Thisstudy is exploring further to know the extent of IEF’s contribution throughwaqf. In short, this study shall come out the collection and distribution offunds including the waqf base project/program.
Again a survey should be carryout to confirm the staff’s awareness of the achievement done so far from thestaff perspective.Lastly, either the IEF successfully or not toachieve its objectives to serve the targeted Al-mawquf ‘alaih (the receiver or user of waqf benefit), this study would like to identify the key factorsthat give such event or in another term is that, why it was happened? Then,based from that point, the study will put an effort to know what kind ofsolution that IEF has taken. Such the information needed is only can be done bya survey to test IEF achievement from the staff perspective.4.
2Methods4.2.1Primary Data a) InterviewFor the purpose to collect therelevant information, several methods are identified.
Firstly, as the author isthe IIUM Master student and the research will be done in IIUM, the method ofinterview can be conducted at any time in office hours. In order to ensure theavailability of staff there and the IEF office, there was a request done earlyso that, this research can be started smoothly at the first place. IEF allowsthe interview session for the purpose of this research.
b) QuestionnaireInformation from the questionnaireis among the best data and source that can be analyze and it produces validatedresult. (Black 1999) indicated that the data is useful for right decisionmaking.The questions designedat the first stage will focus on waqf knowledge among the relevant respondentswhich are the staff of IIUM mainly at the main campus IEF unit and the FinanceDivision are the important respondents that deals with the funds of waqfprojects.. In the IIUM organizational chart as per May 2017 indicated that IEFis still reporting their activities to Finance Division of IIUM thus this makethe staff of Finance Division is relevant to be surveyed. Then, the questiondesigned will reach the objectives of this study from the perspective of thestaff. 4.
2.2Secondary Dataa) Non-published Document of IEFThe author tried to collect writteninformation from IEF either physical documents or softcopy. Again, from IEFresponse, the author is allowed to get the information needed, but IEF throughthe email stated that, any ??information that classified as confidentialinformation is unallowable. However, it is believed that, they will cooperatesince the fast response they gave to the author earlier and the support fromIEF’s Covering Director himself. According to him, he asked the author to listthe information that this study needs and he and the office will try provideit.
b) Website of IEFOne of the easiest way obtaininginformation, it can be extracted from IEF portal website and this can be donedirectly. The information is publically published through IIUM official portalwebsite where everyone has access for it anytime. However, although theinformation provided there are a lot but it is repetitive and still not enoughto support completely the study of IEF. For example, there is informationregarding the type of product of IEF such as waqf and Dewan Zabedah. Theinformation given such as the definition of waqfand explanation, type of waqf, andprofile of Dewan Zabedah. This study needs to know the model used on waqf, the application in form of modusoperandi chart or any possible information that is not directly provide inpublic.
Those above are the methods of gaining informationwhich most of it directly taken from IEF itself with several outside resources.One way of extracting the data is in form of primary data such as interview, documentin the IEF office. In addition, the other way called secondary data can betaken through IEF’s published documents either form its website, annual report,assets profile and other forms. The outside resources can be done throughliterature review the research paper and published article those are related toIEF 4.3 SamplingInaccording with Roscoe (1975) and mentioned again by Sekaran (2003), there areseveral criteria in determining the sample size for appropriate study should belarger than 30 and less than 500 respondents. Again Sekaran (2003) mentioned that “In multivariate research (includingmultiple regression analyses), the sample size should be several times (preferably10 times or more) as large as the number of variables in the study”This research will put an effort to gather more than100 respondents consist of IEF staff, staff from Finance Division and IIUM maincampus staff. 4.
4 Analysis ofDataThedata from the interview, website and annual report will be explained first forthe better understanding on IEF framework and contribution then the result ofthe survey will be analyzed to strengthen the information from the staff perspectiveand awareness.4.4.1 DescriptiveStatisticsAccordingto Citations, References & Layout Formatting Unit of IIUM (2017), itindicates that “the descriptive statistics is describing the data afteranalyzing and summarizing it which is later simplified by presenting them intabular format, graphs or charts”.
4.4.2 ANOVA andT-testAnalysis of variancecalled ANOVA purposely being used in common research based on the survey tocompare more than two groups whilst t-test is used to compare between twogroups of data. Adams et al. (2007) pointed out that unequal variance fort-test is used if the total of ratios between two standard