Charlene Mae MondaresPOLI 1 – ECC WI18: 2755January 11, 2018Chapter Summary 1 (The Founding and the Constitution (Chp.
2)The First Founding: Interests and ConflictsBoth the American Constitution and the American Revolution were results of struggle among certain forces within the colonies. These forces included economic and political forces.American’s interests on the eve of the Revolution included artisans, shopkeepers, southern planters, the “Royalists”, New England merchants, small farmers and laborers.
They were in conflict because of trade, commerce and taxation.British Taxes and Colonial InterestsThe British were financially suffering because of the war between France and the Indians. Their financial struggles also was because of their continuation of protecting against the Native Americans attacking and colonial shipping. (War ended in 1763)The taxes on commerce like the Stamp Act and Sugar Act for example, greatly affected the merchants of New England and the southern planters. The Declaration of IndependencePolitically, the Declaration of Independence stated that the colonists had the right to separate if ever the king would violate certain rights. Philosophically, the document stated that certain rights were inalienable.
(“Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” as stated in the document.)The Articles of ConfederationThe first written constitution of America, it served as basis for America’s national government. Although this was the case, the articles of confederation wasn’t ratified until 1781.Although the articles had some strengths like having congress have power to manage with foreign affairs, it had some weaknesses as well. Weaknesses included the national government not having power to tax (with revenue coming from the states), no national courts or army/navy, or no power to raise any money in order to pay for action against border encroachments. The Constitutional ConventionBecause of the weaknesses among the Articles of Confederation, as well as the Declaration of Independence, Delegates from the original colonies all came together talk about the problems of the Articles and to begin working on a new Constitution. All but Rhode Island refused to send delegates to the Convention and even refused to ratify the Constitution.
Rhode Island thought that if no one from there attended the meeting, it would prevent any changes to the Articles. Furthermore,there were 55 Delegates, which included many of the Founding Fathers. The ConstitutionOne of the Framers goals was to prevent “excessive democracy”. This certain goal of the framers led to bicameral legislature and checks and balances, which are constitutional principles.
These two principles were established because the bicameral legislature acted as a primary function of separation of powers and checks and balances were rules that helped make sure that not one branch of the government is stronger than the other or to say isn’t too powerful.The federal government has three branches (Legislative, Executive and Judicial). These three branches have different qualifications in order to be in either of them. For the most part, these qualifications include age and residency.