CLA 210 NCSU Exam 1 (Heinen)

Late Bronze age (Mycenaean Age)(1600-1150)
Mycenae takes over Crete, destroyed Knossos, and becomes central power in 1450.

Early Dark Age(1250-900):
-Mycenae was destroyed, which resulted in cultural and literary decline.
-Then mainland Greeks resettle in Ionia, Dorians take over.
-1250 marks Trojan war.

Late Dark Age (900-750):
-Population growth and new trade.
-800-Greek alphabet, 776-First Olympic Games 700- Greeks settle in Magna Graecia, S. Italy (Siciliy)

Archaic (750-480)
-Rise of City States (Thebes, Athens, and Sparta)
-499: Ionian Greeks rebel which creates conflict with Persia. 479- Xerxes was driven from Greece.

Classical(480-323):
-First democracy.
-Athens is famous.
-We see the rise of culture and lit (Socrates, Plato, Euripides, Xenphon)

Hellenistic(323-30):
-Alexander the Great dies, Greece falls.
-Greeks then adapt Roman culture, Rome expands beyond Italy, Romans translate Greek lit into Roman.

Linear B
-A script that recorded a form of Mycenaean Greek script and deciphered in 1952 (Ventris.) Used for keeping economic accounts. Found in Pylos, Mycenae, &Thebes (showing cultural uniformity)

Isis
– Egyptian

Inanna/Ishtar
-Egyptian (Babylonian)
-Goddess of love & fertility (Meso diety).
-Attempts to seduce Gilgamesh; fails.

Gilgamesh
-Egyptian (Babylonian)
-King of Uruk

Enkidu
-Babylonian
-Sent by gods to divert Gilgamesh to relieve people
-Wild, naked and uncivilized until tamed by prostitute
-Fights and then becomes Gilgamesh’s BFF

Epic of Gilgamesh
-Enkidu sent to help people of Uruk by stopping Gilgamesh
-After fight, Enkidu and Gilgamesh become friends
-Both go on journey to Cedar Mtn to defeat Humbaba
-Kill Bull of Heaven sent by Ishtar
-Enkidu sentenced to death
-After Enkidu’s death, Gilgamesh goes on journey for eternal life… doesn’t find it.
-This resembles….

Hesiod
-1st European writer
-“Theogony” most important mythical texts to survive

Theogony
-written by Hesiod
-Tells the origin of the universe through succeeding generations of gods.
-an elaborate hymn to Zeus

Homer
-The man
-some of our earliest greek lit
-written down once greek alphabet was established, oral stories before that.

Homeric Hymns
-during archaic period
-collection of poems
-composed orally
-written to Demeter, Apollo, Hermes, and Aphrodite
-performed in specific places by aoidoi

Apollodorus
-most surviving work of the mythographers
-straight forward account of mythical events from creation to death of Odyssesus
-primary source for creation story

Three Primordal elements
1) Chaos, then
2) Gaea (Earth), then
3) Tartarus (base of things)
—4) Eros (sex)
“There was Gaea.. and then Tartatus..”

Cronus
-Parents: Uranus (Sky) & Gaea (Earth)
-Last born Titan
-Clever; hated father
-Uranus made Gaea hide their children inside her. Gaea is mad and comes up comes up with plot to castrate Uranus.. Cronus does the deed
– Told by Uranus and Gaea he would be overthrown by a son so he swallows his children as they are born.

Iapetus
-father of Prometheus & Epimetheus (Twins, opposite)

Prometheus
-Titan
-god of forethought
-entrusted with molding mankind, stole fire for men

Epimetheus
-Titian
-God of afterthought
-created all the animals and gave each one a specific gift but did not leave a gift for man. Accepts Pandora.

Menemosyne
-goddess of memory
-supply children of Zeus (9 muses- history, poetry, music, tagedy, etc.)

Hyperion
-“he who goes above”
-sun-god
-titan
-father to Helios (sun), Selene (moon), Eos (dawn)

Helios
-sun god
-grants 1 wish to his son, Phaethon, (asked to be allowed to drive sun chariot but loses control and sets world on fire) why Libya is a desert

Selene
-Moon Goddess
-Falls in love with shepherd named Endymion.
-Has Zeus make Endymion sleep for a long time while she has 50 daughters with his sleeping body

Eos
-Goddess of the dawn. -Many love affairs.
-Encounters Tohonus (trojan prince morta), asks Zeus to make him immortal… he does but keeps aging and turns into cicada/cricket

Who Zeus battles in Titanomachy
-Cronus
-Typhoeus
-Battle of giants
-titans

Big monsters in Titanomachy
-Typhoeus
-Giants?

Fate of Titans
-helped by 3 hectanochires
-Zeus casts them into black distant

Tarturus (in Titanomachy)
-Atlas given punishment to hold up sky
-3 brothers divided world amongst themselves: Zeus (heaven), Poseidon (sea), Hades (underworld)

How Zeus defeats succession myth
-Zeus marries Metis (cleverness) and swallows her when pregnant
-Later his head hurts and is cracked open by Hephaestus in which Athena pops out.
-Secures place by performing both female and male roles… therefore constant successions

Themes in Creation
-Zeus and Cronos: tricksters
-Cronos & Uranos: ogres
-Dragons: ancient guardians
-Family conflict
-Power moves from female to male & attempts to reclaim power result badly
-Female presence is constant

Athena (Minerva)
Virgin Goddess
– Born from the head of Zeus
-Goddess of War (controlled/manipulated)
-Icons: Owls, snakes, body armor, craft work (weaving)
-Epithets: Pallas (maiden/weapon), Gluaukopis (owl/grey eyed), Pathenos (maiden), Aegiophora
-Story:
1.) Held a competition with Poseidon to be protector of Athens. Poseidon created salt spring, Athena created first olive tree.
2.) Arachne boasted that her weaving skills were equal to Athena’s. Athena disguises herself as old woman, giving Arachne a chance to apologize. Arachne talks shit. Athena reveals herself after weaving contest and the prideful Arachne accepts her fate and is turned into a spider, forever hanging. Ovid Story.
-Location: Parthenon

Artemis (Diana)
Virgin Goddess
-Goddess of hunting and untamed areas
-Twin sister of Apollo
-Icon: Bows/Arrows, Deer, Iyre
-Epithets: Potnia Theron (mistress of animals), Lydia, Arrow-covering
Stories:
1) Niobe bragged she had more kids than Leto, so Artemis and Apollo shot down all of her kids.
2) Agamemnon killed deer sacred to Artemis and boasted about his skills, Agamemnon ships won’t move after and he is forced to sacrifice his daughter.
3) Orion rapes Merope, King Oenopion blinds him. Orion has affair w/ Eos & Artemis. Orion killed by Gaea.
Locations: Delos, Aitolia, Lykia, Anatolia

Hestia (Vesta)
Virgin Goddess
– Stays at home and cares for Olympians
-virgin
-Personal religion and internal space
Icon: veiled, holding tree branch/pot
Story: Dinoysus took her place
Locations: Never left Olympia

Aphrodite (Venus)
Non-Virgin Goddess
-Goddess of love/sex
-Born when Uranus’ genitals land in the ocean
– Opposite of Athena. Uncontrollable force on men, “oldest” olympian
-Icon: bathing/emerging from water
-Story:
1) Aphrodite transforms herself into human when sees Anchises (a Trojan prince). Sleeps w/ him, gets pregnant. Has 2 sons: Lyros & Aeneas (Aeneas found Roman Race).
2) Has sex w/ Hermes, gave birth to Hermaphorditus.
-From East

Hermaphroditus
-product of Hermes and Aphrodite
-Herma is pursued by Salmacis, prays to be joined to him, their bodies join into one

Demeter (Ceres)
Non-Virgin Goddess
-Goddess of cultivated land
-Daughter of Cronus/Rhea
-Mom of Persephone
-Icon: wheat, grain, harvest, flowers, chariot
-Epithets: motherhood, chthonia (ground), fruit-bearer
-Story:
In Eleusis, she thinks people are kind and decides to make Demophoon immortal but mother walks in and the process stops

Apothesois
-become immortal
-melt human flesh away

Persephone
-Daughter of Zeus and Demeter
-Initially virgin Goddess, until abducted by Hades in which she eats pomegranate seed.
-Demeter gets sad, so crops won’t grow. Come to agreement that Perseph can come up some of the year. Explains seasons

Hera (Juno)
-goddess of weddings & marriage, childbirth, queen of gods, wife of Zeus
-Icon: cow, peacock
-Epithets: queen, cow eyed
-Contradiction: goddess of childbirth, but a horrible mom
-Story:
Hera gives birth to Hephaetus (blacksmith) but throws him out b/c he is lame. Hephaetus says he forgives her but tricks her when she sits in the throne he makes her in which he won’t release her until he gets promised Aphrodite in marriage
-Location: Argos, Samos, Olympia

Zeus (Jupiter)
– Son of Cronus, escapes being eaten.
-Lord of sky, controls weather, presides over law and justice, 115 affairs
-Icon: Aegis (goat skin), thunderbolt
-Epithets: Protectors of Xenia (reciprocal hospitality)
-Story:
Hera seduces Zeus w/ magical belt from Aphrodite in Trojan war. Zeus falls asleep. Hera sneaked away and roused the Gods against the Trojans

Poseidon (Neptune)
-Lord of sea
-Married Amphitrite
-Brother of Zeus
-Icon: Trident, horses, impregnated Medusa
-Epithets: earthshaker
-Story: anger/revenge

Hades (Pluto)
-King of dead, God of Wealth, “the invisible”.
-Not technically an Olympian because he lives beneath Earth.

Apollo
– Son of Leto and Zeus.
-God of Shamans, archery, healing, prophecy, “greek aristocratic ideology”
-Icon: bow/arrow, lyre, kithara
-Epithets: far shooter, delian, healer, phanaeus
Story: Dephic Oracle/ Unhappy love affairs
Locations: Delos

Delphic Oracle (Apollo)
– After birth Apollo moved to Delphi to establish temple
-Built above place where he killed Phython (a chthonic poisonous serpent)
-Oracles would be given there by the Pythia.
-Responses always vague but stressed moderation: “Know thyself” and “Nothing in excess”.

Hephaestus (Vulcan)
-God of volcanoes and blacksmiths, promoter of civilizations and cities
-Icon: hammer, furnace, tongs, donkeys
-Limp but made beautiful art.
-Marries aphrodite
-tricks Hera

Ares (Mars)
-Son of Zeus and Hera
-God of uncontrolled war/blood lust
-Icon: warrior, panic, fear, harmony, eros
-Story: Has affair with Aphrodite and Hephaestus finds out, they are put in unbreakable chains on Mount Olympus to humiliate them

Hermes
-God of Open Spaces, Intercessor between mortal and divine, Conductor of souls for afterlife
-Epithets: Protector of travelers, thieves, story tellers, poets, trade, athletes
-Story:
Trickster who travels the worlds, dependent of wit, master of deception, lies, and commerce

Death/Fertility Myth
-Demeter and Persephone
-Exemplified real Greek mother’s having to give up children in marriage or any loss

Eleusinian Mysteries
-The promise of regeneration through the power of Demeter was the premise of one of the famous religious cults of ancient world
-festival in fall
-Families/People: Eumpolipids, Kerykes, Triptolemus

Importance of fertility ritual
-Moving people on to the next stage of life. “Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God”
-Children/Rebirth>Maidenhood/Death>Motherhood/Seed>(REPEAT)

Dionysus
-God of Wine, life source, personality
-took Hestia’s place
-male principle of fertility
-child of Semele and Zeus
-Story:
Hera tricks Semele to question Zeus. She convinces Zeus to swear that he will grant her a request but is burned alive. Dionysus stitched into Zeus’ thigh.
Hermes carried Dionysus to Semele’s sister Ino, tried to trick Hera sees Dionysus and drives Ino and Athamas mad. Zeus turns Dionysus into young goat and Hermes takes him to Nymphs of Nysa where D learned to turn juice into wine.
-retrieved mother (Semele) from Hades

Semele
-was tricked by Hera to see Zeus’ real form but that burnt her

Ecstatic worship:
-Dionysus
-Cult
-Devotees lost sense of personal identity (ecstasy)

Bacchae
-female followers of Dionysus
-also called maenads (raging women)
-carried thrsus (star with pinecone/ivy)

Satyrs
-Male followers of Dionysus
-Half human/half horses creatures with errect phalli
-Silenus (old satyr)

Destructive pattern of Dionysus
-Unique to Greek Life: Many Stories of Resistance to him and his cult and the vengence he takes.
-Lycurgus, King of a tribe in Thrace that persecuted Dionysus and his followers
-Minyads- 3 Daughters of Kind Minyas
-Refused to join religion of Dionysus and they turned into bats (love dark and reject light)
-Protids
-Entruscan Pirates
-King Pentheus- Opposed god and ensued own end (Climbs up tree and Dionysus lets it snap)
-Ino boiled child alive
– When he comes? Disaster (death and madness)
-Destruction byst also resurrection
• Ino- became sea-goddess
• Semele- joins Gods in Olympus

Midas
-Son of Godias and Cybele, rewarded by Dionysus
-Asked for everything to be turned to gold
-Relieved by washing himself in Pactolus River (Lybia became prosperous with gold)

Ariadne
-married Dionysus, daughter of King Minos

Contrasts between Demeter and Dionysus
• Demeter gives the grain, precious to human beings, but by nature is dry and passive.
• Dionysus represents a wet and active substance, the “juice” that gives life to things. Water is the natural element closest to Dionysus.
• Dionysus- Lycurgus drives him into the sea to the protective arms of the sea-goddess Thetis.
• Dionysus descends through the Aycyonean lake to bring back his mother from the underworld.
• Dionysus’ encounter with the Etruscan pirates takes place at sea.
• Ino his nurse and victim, becomes a sea-goddess.
• Watery god is associated with the wet components of living things: semen, sap milk and blood.

Hero Vs. Divine Myth
-Divine myths have gods/goddesses as principal characters. Generally explain why the world, or some aspect of it, is the way it is. Supernatural beings sometimes take on human/animal shapes. Control awesome forces natures
-Hero myths are about mortals worshiped on Earth

Greek perception of Hero
-for ancient Greeks, hero means protector. Homer’s version of hero means noble and well born male & always alive. The term was also applied to noble figures from the distant past, all dead.

Major elements of hero stories
-a story, supernatural or liminal characters (between gods and human), cultural/universal symbols.
-heroes are those worshiped beneath the earth
-most of the famous heroes had well known tombs (hero), these were built in well-travelled places

Perseus
-founded Mycenae (popular center of wealth and power, later ruled by Atreus and his son, Agamenon (led forces against Tory) and former king of Tiryns)

Perseus Birth
-Began with Io & Zeus. Hera was about to learn of Zeus’ affair, so Zeus turned Io into a cow. From this affair, Io gave birth to Epaphus.
-Danaus & Aegyptus (twins). Aegyptus became king of Arabia, Danus became king of Libya. Aegyptus had 50 sons and Danaus had 50 daughters (danaids). Danaus agreed to have his daughters married off to A’s sons but told them to kill their husbands on their wedding night.
-Hypermenstra didn’t’ kill her husband, Lynceus, because he spared her virginity.
-Lynceus has twins; Acrisius and Proteus (didn’t get along.) Proteus’s has daughter, Danae. Oracle said that Danae would give birth to a son that would kill Acrisius & Danae was then put in a chamber where Zeus impregnated her. That child was Perseus. They were cast to sea, saved by Dictys.
-Perseus promised the head of a gorgon (female creature) as a wedding gift for Polydectes and Hippodamia so that Polydectes would lay off his mom.

Perseus’ Quest
-Gorgons, Stheno, Eurale, & Medusa
-Medusa was mortal, but no had ever survived an encounter w/ her.
-Athena came to Peresus and told him instructions (must learn whereabouts of helpful nymphs were from the Graeae.)
-3 witches with 1 eye and 1 tooth
-He took them and so they revelaed where the nymphs were, but had to obtain 1)cap of hades (invisibility cloak) 2) Winged sandals 3) leather pouch to conceal head.
-Flew to ricer ocean, slashed off Medusa’s head.
-Medusa was pregnant by Posedion, so Peagasus and Giant Chrysaor flew out her head.
-When he returns, he learns Polydectes has assaulted Danae. Returns magical items and gives Gorgon’s head to Athena.
-Perseus saw Andromea chained to a rock & fell in love
-P wanted to meet his father, Acrisius. Unknowlingly, P enters an athletic competition but accidentally hits and kills Acrisius when throwing the discus.

Heracles birth
-Son of Zeus & Alcmena (grandfather of Perseus who was to marry Amphitryon.)
-On their wedding night, Zeus (disguised as Amph) and Amphitryon both slept with Alcmena. Alcmena received both mortal and divine seeds, and out came Heracles and Iphicles.
-Hera was jealous so tried to delay birth, but was tricked and babies were born.
-Hera tried to kill Heracles with snakes, but he smashed them together. Amph then knows Heracles is son of Zeus.

Heracles first wife and kids
-Amphitryon killed in war. Heracles is now new king of thebes and Megara is now his wife. They have 3 kids.
-Hera still jealous so makes Heracles crazy for a day, in which he kills his wife and children.
-To attone for his crime, he had to perform 12 labors for Eurystheus (king of mycenae) and then he would become immortal

1st Labor- Nemean Lion
-had to kill it by snapping neck
-worse skin as prize and protection

2nd Labor- The Lernaean Hydra
-Hydra: enormous serpent that lived in swamps of Lerna
-Cut 1 head off and 2 would grow.
-Fire branded heads- stopped reproduction
-Cut off head & dipped arrows in mister’s bile as weapon
-Crab attacked him; Cancer

3rd Labor- Ceryneian Deer
-Had to bring deer in, had brazen hooves and golden antlers (belonged to artemis)
-Apollo stopped him b/c it was his sister’s animal after he caught it. Let him take the goods though.

4th Labor- The Erymanthian Boar
-had to capture boar
-heracles asked for centaurs and he attacked
-they fled to Chiron (wounded, always in pain, but immortal)
-Heracles traded his mortality for agonizing immortality, Chiron died.

5th Labor- The Augean Stables
-Augeas (son of Helius) had many horses but never cleaned stables, so Heracles had to clean it.
-Said if he cleaned it in 1 day (he did), he should get 1/10 of Agueas’s scuttle.
-Created river. Augeas didn’t pay up because he learned Herc was working for Eurytheus.

6th Labor- The Symphalian Birds
-birds had arrow firing wings and armor piercing beaks
-heracles shoots them down

7th Labor- Cretan Bull
-had to capture/ from sea of Minos.
-later killed by Theseus

8th Labor- Horses of Diomedes
-had to capture horse. then dined on human flesh
-Alcestis: Apollo was forced to serve under Admetus for a year by Zeus. Treated God so well that he was told he could live if he found someone else to die in his place. Apollo’s only wite, Alcestis, was willing. Heracles gets drunk and funeral and so bring back Alcestis from the dead

9th Labor- Girdle of Hippolyta
-Amazon queen who hated men
-had to bring back
-to loosen girdle was to offer sexually, to take off forcibly was rape
-Heracles was offered girdle quickly, Hera almost ruined plan so he had to kill Hippolyta

10th Labor- The Cattle of Geryon
-had to capture/3 bodies joined at waist (had 2 headed dog)
-was given cup by sun-god
-drove cattle from spain, to france, to Italy
-Also, Bursiris
-Bursiris (son of Poseido who scarified every foreigner) til Heracles killed him

11th Labor- Prometheus
-Prometheus was still getting his liver eaten by an eagle every day until Hearcles killed the eagle.
-Asked Atlas to get appeals while he held up the sky, but tricked him to hold the sky again and took the apples

12th Labor- Cerebus
-Cerebus was a many headed guard god of underworld
-Used lion skin as armor, but the snake tail bit him, yet still made it to Eurstheus.

Metopes
12 stone panels where 12 labors were formed.
*12 is a magic number for them

Iole & Heracles
-Iole (daughter of King Oecnalia) offered as prize in archery contest.
-Heracles won, but b/c of incident w/ Megara the King wouldn’t give up Iole, and Heracles accidentally killed the King’s son.
-To atone w/ Apollo for this murder he had to serve as a woman’s slave for 3 year and give all money to King Oecnalia
-The woman he served, Omphale (queen of lydia) was also a lover
-Captured cercopes (two mean guys who robbed passerby’s and treated them cruelly)

Death of Heracles
-Deianira (man killer) was recommended by brother to marry Heracles
-Heracles was also wanted by Acheious (river god), but fought Heracles & died.
-Nessus- Centaur who ferried travelers for small fee
-Assaulted Deianira, * Heracles shot him w/ arrow. Before Nessus died, he instructed Deianira to collect semen & blood for potion that would make Heracles never look at another women
-Deianira learned about Iole & gave Heracles the potion
-Potion killed him instead of keeping him faithful
-Deianira killed herself
-Heracles made a God

Heraclids
-sons of Heracles, whom Eurystheus was determined to kill.
-instead they kill him

Theseus & Athens
-Theseus is Athen’s greatest Hero

3 Claims to origin of Athens (Athenians)
1) descended from a mortal named Cecrops
2) They were autochtonous (sprung from earth)
3) They were descended from Athena (City named after)

Cecrops
-taught monogamy, to worship Zeus, abandon human sacrifice, to build cities, to bury dead properly
-Born from Hephaestus getting semen on Athena’s leg
-Loss of Athena’s sexual innocence
-Became king of Athens
-Now festival of girls losing viriginity “Festival of dew carriers”

Erichthonius
-another king of Athens, the theme of Athenian autochthony
-gave birth to Pandion who had daughters; Procne & Philomela
-Terus (king of Racias, son of Areas) was assistance in war
-Terus wanted Procne as wife, they bore son Itys
-Philomena loses tongue, so as revenge she & Procne kill Itys & heed him to Terus
-Terus turns procne into bird (one should not give into irrational desire)
-Pandion died, Erechtheus (son) became king and had seven kids (2nd cecrops)
-2nd Cecrops has 2nd Pandion, who married Creusa. They had 4 sons, including Aegus & Pallas.
-Sons gained power, Aegus had more power but was sterile while Pallas had 50 sons.
-Oracle said that the next intercourse would produce heir, so Pittheus tricked him to sleep with his daughter Aethra who later was possesed by Poseidon–>Theseus

Birth of Theseus
-son of mortal Aegeus
-son of immortal Poseidon

Labors of Theseus
o Killed Periphetes “clubber”-son of Hephaestus
• Killed him with his own club then took it
o Slew Sinis- giant and son of Poseidon “Pinebender”
• Catapulted victims through air or tie them to 2 bent trees and let go (Theseus gave same treatment)
• Killed enormous pig in Cromnyon
• Turned tables on Sciron. Forced him to wash Theseus’ keet and then kicked him down the slope
• Crushed powerful wrestler, Cercyon to death
• Killed Procrustes who offered travelers a place to sleep for the night. Had big bed and small bed and because he liked symmetry he would cut off or stretch people to fit the bed

Theseus’ Arrival in Athens
o Theseus arrived, but Aegeus would not acknowledge him because of sorcerous Medea, so sent him after bull, which he killed
o Madea (antagonist) tried to poison him but Aegeus stopped him
o 50 sons of Pallas tried to kill Theseus, but he instead killed them
• Theseus became king by accident when he forgot to change the sails on his boat, making his father believe that he was dead–>made him toss himself into the sea (Aegean Sea)
o Made Greek Synocism “Living with” ATTICA
o Instituted Panathenaic fest- Attic unity
o Abducted Antiope (or Hippolyta) queen of amazons and provoked Amazonomachy “battle with amazons”
o *Amazons hated men and would tolerate as slaves
• Would cut off right breast to help with Archery
• Follows Artemis
• Constructed temple of Artemis at Ephiesus
• Amazons vs Athenian Women
• Victory over Amazons symbolized and Justified Athens moral and political superiority

Theseus/Antiope
-Have a son, named Hippolytus
-he left her for Phaedra

Phaedra
o But later cast her off for new wife Phaedra Daughter of Minos
• Hippolytus devoted himself to virgin huntress Artemis and despised his own gender
• Phaedra fell in love with Hippolytus (her stepson)
• Her nurse told him and he was disgusted
• Scared Hippolytus would tell Theseus, Phaedra killed herself saying she had too much shame after Hippolytus assaulted her
• Theseus curses his own son- bull causes Hippolytus to be reared into the ocean and dies- Later Theseus learns truth
• From this story came “Potiphar’s Wife”
• Bellerophon

Pirithous
-son of Ixion
-King of Lapiths
-Theseus almost killed him but they become friends like Gilgamesh and Enkidu
-Maried Hippodamia and invited Centaurs to wedding
-Centaruomachy

Theseus & Pirithous Wives
-looked for new wives together when their wives died
-Helen for Theseus (too young for intercourse)
-Pirithous wanted to Persephone (wife of Hades) and they were bound to chairs until Heracles saved them
-Theseus returned to upper world in which Athens was in turmoil
-Theseus took Helen and his mom (aethra) to Scyros for hospitality
-He is then pushed off cliff by local king (carless/shameful death)

Pisistratus
-famous leader of Athens who sponsored the Thesis (legend of Theseus)
-Theseus invented coinage

Myths of Crete
-Handed down through the Athenians.
– Most of our sources are Roman, who were interested in strange or rhetorical aspects of the stories.

Europa and the Bull
-Zeus takes the shape of a bull and abducts Europa.
-The King sends Europa’s three brothers to look for her, but they don’t.
-Zeus and Europa have a number of kids including: Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthys.

Minos and Pasiphae
-Minos drives out brothers when they all fall in love with same girl. He becomes King and marries Pasipiphae.
-Confirms his identity by asking Poseidon for bull to rise out of the ocean.
-He refuses to sacrifice the bull to Poseidon, so Poseidon makes Pasiphae fall in love with the bull.

Pasiphae’s fate
-Daedlus, an exile from Athens, helps her create a wooden cow.
-The bull impregnates her, and she gives birth to the Minotaur.
-Minos order Daedlus to build the Labyrinth to hold the Minotaur.

Androgeus
-defeats everyone in the panathenaic game

Theseus and the Bull
– Ariadne, Minos’ daughter, fell in love with him as the ship apporached.
-Adriane tells him to take a ball of yarn into the Labyrinth.
-Theseus kills the Minotaur, escapes with Ariadne, but abandons her on Naxos.

Daedalus
-The one responsible for minotaur.
-Minos imprisoned him in labyrinth as punishment.

Jason
-Salmoneus, a brother of Athamas, has a daughter Tyro.
-Poseidon impregnate Tyro, has twins, Pelias and Neleus.
-Pelias is arrogant and wants to rule Thessaly.
-Aeson, (a half brother and rightful heir) is imprisoned. He has a child, but says it was a stillborn and sends him off to be tutored by Chiron.
-Chiron named the boy Jason and taught him arts and fighting.

Jason’s oracle
A man with one sandal will be downfall of Pelias.

Jason’s first return home
Jason’s returns to Colchis and helps an old lady cross a stream on the way. The old lady was Hera, who want to destroy Pelias by bringing Medea.

Jason and the Argonauts
-Argus builds a huge ship.
-Jason invites all the great men to join.
-Idmon predicts everyone will return safely but Jason.
-Jason sleeps with Hypsipyle and later has two sons.
Heracles remains on board with Hylas and shames Agronauts.

Madea
-Sees Jason when he arrives, and Aphrodite causes her to fall in love.
-Oracle: A foreigner would bring an end to Aeetes.
=Guards the fleece with a never sleeping dragon.

Aeetes
-Tells Jason he can have the fleece once he yokes some fire breathing cows.
– Medea gives him a fire proof ointment if he will marry her and take her away.
-Jason yokes the cows. Confused earth-men by throwing a big boulder.

King Aeetes plans to attack Jason
but Medea leads him to fleece and puts the dragon to sleep.
-Jason and Agronautes fle on the Ister River.
-Medea’s brother pursues them but they kill him.
-Another group from Colchis apporaches them, but a king will protect them if they are married.

Jason returns home
-Pelias thinks he has avoided the Oracle’s prophecy.
-Pelias forces Aeson into suicide, and Jason’s mother kills herself.
-He accepts her fleece, but keeps the throne.
-Medea tricks the daughters of Pelias into cutting him to pieces.

Jason gets the girl
-The two move to Corinth, and decides to marry Glauce, the daughter of Creon.
-Jason dies old, sick, and alone when the prow of the ship falls and kills him.

The Thebean Cycle

Alcestis

Odeipus Rex