Computational a straight line (Spalter, 1999). It determines

Computational techniques improvedconsiderably the animation production in terms of efficiency and costs becausetraditional animation requires more time and labour force to create animations.One recent example is the movie Loving Vincent, that required more than ahundred animators/painters to create the animated movie. Besides cost and efficiencyadvantages, the results achieved with the 3D animation are not possible toachieve with traditional animation. For example, if one considers the point ofview that composes of each frame, it has a huge impact on the storytelling andin the viewer experience. Changes in perspective and the point of view of theframes have a bigger impact on traditional animation because it cannot beeasily done, while in it can be easily changed in 3D projects. Consideringthis, computational technologies allow the animators and producers to be morecreative because they can try more option during the production process.For example, the scripted animation techniqueis based on animated frames and the interpolation of it in the in-betweenframes. In the traditional animation, the illusion of movement was createdthrough the illustration frame-by-frame, with an illustrator responsible forthe key-frames and a team of animators working in the in-between frames.

In computeranimation, on the other hand, the key-frames are set and the in-between framesare generated automatically by the system through interpolation. One interpolationtechnique to animate the in-between frames is the linear interpolation (Fig.13), that allows calculating new positions at equal intervals along a straightline (Spalter, 1999). It determines the number of positions calculated and thusthe number of frames created. There is also the nonlinear interpolation (Fig.

14), that creates a more realistic motion effect. In the case of framesanimation, the computational techniques reduced the time and also theproduction costs, because the computer substituted a number of people thatwould be involved in the process of drawing the frames. At the same time, theaccuracy in terms of the ‘pencil strokes’ of the draw are standardized, whatwould be hard to achieve in the hand-drawing process. For example, by observingthe classic Snow White and the SevenDwarfs from Disney, it can be noticed some little changes in the formats ofthe animated objects and characters, also the flow of movement is not asrealistic as would be if made with computer technologies.