Confucianism

Feudalism
A system by which land is divided into fiefs, which vassals hold in return for a service by their superiors.

Mencius
Which of the famous Confucian philosophers emphasized righteousness, morals, democracy, and education that strengthens the mind?

Jen
A term in Confucianism that refers to an inward expression toward others of goodness and benevolence.

Li
A term in Confucianism that refers to an outward expression of rules and etiquette.

The Analects
A collection of sayings written down by Confucius’ students about 70 years after his death, this book is the most revered scripture in the Confucian tradition.

The Mandate of Heaven
What did Confucius worship?

Shu
This term refers to the Confucian equivalent of the Golden Rule that states, “Do not do to others what you would not have them do to you.”

Li
According to Confucianism, what should one perfect for relationships?

I Ching
The oldest of the Five Classics, this book is a collection of eight trigrams and 64 hexagrams which consist solely of Yang and Yin lines, which reflects the nature of Yin and Yang in the world. It is also called the Book of Changes, and is used in divination.

The Book of Annals
This is a work of the history of the five preceding dynasties. The example of the ancients was crucial to Confucius’ understanding of how the superior man should behave.

The Book of Poetry
This book of ancient poetry was assembled by Confucius because he believed the reading of poetry would aid in making a man virtuous.

The Book of Ceremonies
This book was written to teach the superior man to act in the right, or traditional, way.

The Annals of Spring and Autumn
This book gives a commentary on the events of the state of Lu at Confucius’ time.

The Book of Changes
Which of the Five Classics is considered the oldest?

The Four Books
A collection of Confucius’ and his disciples’ teachings, and the standard curriculum for Chinese education for centuries.

The Analects
One of the Four Books, and the most revered sacred scripture in the Confucian tradition, this is a collection of sayings written down by Confucius’ students about 70 years after his death.

The Great Learning
One of the Four Books, this work deals with the education and training of a gentleman.

The Doctrine of the Mean
One of the Four Books, this work deals with the relationship of human nature to the order of the universe.

The Book of Mencius
One of the Four Books, this work was compiled by Mencius in an attempt to collect and systematically record earlier Confucian teachings. It stresses the goodness of human nature.

Filial Piety
The respect a person has for their parents and ancestors. The highest virtue in Confucianism.

The Emperor
Who is considered the Son of Heaven in Confucianism?