Contents A1 …………………………………………..……………………………………………………5 A2………………..……………………………………………………………………………….7 A3………………………….
……………………………………………………………………..9 A4……………………………………………………………………………………….………11 Section AA1. i. Groupsare a collection of individuals who have regular contact and often situation,mutual influence, common feeling of camaraderie, and who work together toachieve a common set of goals. Examples of groups include neighborhood watchvolunteers, book club members, residents of a specific block, cyclists,seniors, HOA members, ete…..
ii. – It is amixed group. ( people from japan, china, united states, etc )- Eachof them have different skills.
( Hamada from tokyo, director of marketing, U.Scompany, Thomas the top purchasing manager, Mariana preus the head of productdesign from Argentina and etc…)- Theyalready have a leader- Theyare working with different knowledge. iii. Formalgroups are created to achieve specific organizational objectives and areconcerned with the co-ordination of work activities.Functions of formal group Organizational functions Individual functions 1. Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals.
1. Satisfy the individuals for affiliation. 2. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions. 2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity.
3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts. 3.
Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptionsof social reality. 4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments. 4.
Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness. 5. Implement complex decisions.
5. Provide a problem solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems. 6.
Socialize and train new comers. iv. Stages of group development: Forming, Storming, Norming,Performing, Adjourning Groups are a common arrangement in today’s businesses environment.Any manager who works with or supervises groups should be familiar with howthey develop over time. Perhaps the best-known scheme for a group developmentwas advanced by Bruce Tuckman in 1965.
At the beginning, tuckman identifiedfour stages of group development, which include the stages of forming,storming, norming, and performing. A fifth stage was later added by tuckmanabout ten years later. Which is called adjourning. Forming The first stage of group development is known as the forming stage.This stage is the polite explorationstage. The forming stage represents a time where the group is just starting tocome together and is characterized with an unpleasant state and uncertainity.
Membersare careful with their behavior, which is obsessed by the request to bereceived by all members of the group. Conflict, a debate and personal opinionsare to abstain from even though members are beginning to form impressions ofeach other and gain an understanding of what the group will do together.Average outcomes of this stage include things like gaining an understanding ofthe group’s purpose, determinnghow the team will be organized and who will beresponsible for what, discussion of major milestones or phases of the group’sgoal, outlining general group rules and discovery of what resources will beavailable for the group to use.StormingThe second stage of group development is storming stage. This isthe conflict stage. Storming means where conflict and competition are at itsgreatest. This is because now that group members have an understanding of thetask and a general feel for who they are as a group and who the group membersare, they feel confident and begin to address some of the more important issuessurrounding the group. All members have an increased need for clarification.
Leadership, authority, responsibilities, rules, reward system and more questionstend to arise this stage.Norming Slowly , the team moves into the norming stage. This is theaccomodation stage. This happens when people start to resolve theirdifferences, appreciate colleagues’ strengths, and respect your authority as aleader.After this members know very well each other, they may socialize together,and tthey are able to ask one another for help and provide strong feedback.PerformingThis is the ultimate stage. The erforming stage is where goals aremet and tasks are accomplished.
In this stage, the group members arecomfortable and knowledgeable enough to find pattern or tacyics that contributeto the success of the group.AdjourningThe adjourning stage was added in 1977. This stage involvesdismatling and breaking up the group once all the tasks and goals have beenaccomplished. A2.i. Learningis a process by which new behaviors are acquired. It is generally agreed thatlearning involves changes in behavior, practicing new behaviors andestablishing permanency in the change.Learning is anypermanent change in behavior of a person that occurs as a result of experience.
Learning has taken place if an individual behaves, reacts, respondents as aresult of experience in manner different from the way he formerly behaved. ii. Thediverse nature of the group affected the committee’s action by notunderstanding and participating in the meeting of all members. Some members aregiven their opinion and some are agreed to their opinion as well. But othermembers are not participating in this meeting. And the leader as well is nottrying to understand their situation. I think, if they take their time todiscuss, the result would be better than this.
iii. Thelearning process iv. Theories of learningLearning isdefined as a process that brings together personal and environmentalexperiences and influences for acquiring, enriching or modifying one’sknowledge, skills, values, attitudes, behavior and world views.
BehaviourismLearner ispassive: learns via external processes i.e. positive reinforcement.CognitivismLearning goesbeyond external: is an internal process- short and long term memory. ConstructivismLearner buildson personal experience (internal ), active and social in the learning process.ConnectivismLearner isself-directed learning via content source, people, groups with in network.A3.
i. Attitudesare judgments. An attitude is a way of thinking or feeling about something, acertain state of mind at the time. They develop on the ABC model (affect,behavior, and cognition). The affective response is an emotional response thatexpresses an individual’s degree of preference for an entity. The behavioralintention is a verbal indication or typical behavioral tendency of anindividual.
ii. If Iwere jose’s position , I ll take time to discuss about that more than 45minutes. And I ll make them understand what’s the real problem is. And find anacceptable answer.
iii. Characteristicsof good leadership includes:· Honesty· Abilityto deligate · Communication· Senseof humor· Commitment· Positiveattitude · Creativity· Abilityto inspireFirst of all,Jose has to know the characteristics of a leadership. He should learn how to bea good leader.
So that he can handle every single thing in his job. And also,more importantly if there will be a good leadership skills than it will be easyto manage the business. And business will be successful. For that, the managershas to share things to employees and get opinion from them. iv.
Nature vs nurture in personality · Naturerefers to our genetic or hereditary origins.- Studiesof identical twins, particularly those separated at birth, reveal thathereditary has a very large effect on personality · Instinctis an unchanging biologically inherited behavior.· Nurturerefers to the person’s socialisation, life experiences and other forms ofinteraction with the environment.
– Personalityis not stable at birth and stabilises throughout adolescence v. Three theories of motivation 1. Maslow Maslow’shierarchy of need categories is the most famous examples:v Self-actualization Morality,creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance offactsv Esteem Self-esteem,confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by othersv BelongingnessFriendship, family, sexual intimacyv SafetySecurityof: body, employment, resources, morality, the family,health, propertyv PhysiologicalBreathing, food, water, sleep, homeostasis, excretion 2. Two factor theory (Herzberg)v Hygiene factors:These are factors whose absence motivates, but whose presence hasno perceived effect.
They are things that when you take them away, peoplebecome dissatisfied and act to get them back.v Motivators:These are factors whose presence motivates. Their absence does notcause any particular dissatisfaction, it just fails to motivate.So hygiene factors determine dissatisfaction, and motivatorsdetermine satisfaction. The two scales are independent, and can be high onboth. 3.
Theory X and YTheory X and theory Y are theories of human motivation andmanagement.Theory X is based on pessimistic assumptions regarding the typicalworker. Usually, theory X style managers believe their employees are lessintelligent than the managers are. Lazier than the managers are, or work alonefor a sustainable income.Theory Y managers act on the belief that people in the workforceare internally motivated, enjoy their labor in the company, and work to betterthemselves without a direct reward in return.
Theory Y employees are consideredto be one of the most valuable assets to the company, and truly drive theinternal workings of the corporation. A4. Leader’s profileBarack ObamaAlso known as: barack hussein obama IIFamous as:44th U.S presidentNationality: AmericanPolitical Ideology: Political party – DemocraticBirth date: August 4, 1961Father: Barack Obama, sr.Mother: Ann DunhamWhat type of leader ?A psychological profile of U.S. president Barack obama, developedat the unit for the study of personality in politics during obama’s 2008 and2012 presidential campaigns, reveals that the president is a highly confident,moderately accommodating and deliberative.
What makes them a good leader ?All business owners and executives have varying experiences andperspectives on the approach and qualities necessary for effective leadership.And all not situations require the same type of leadership style. Great leadersadapt to their surroundings environments and empower the team to succeedtogether. Great leaders find the balance between business foresight,performance and character. They have vision, courage, integrity, humility, andfocus.1. Havefaith in their beliefs2.
Makethe hard choice3. Knowthe team 4. Getthe respect of the team5.
Knowthat the people are the key to success6. Pushpeople to be their best