Corruption is identical to venom which is devastating thepneuma of our society steadily but surely.
It has prevailed in our society insuch a modus operandi that it is a fair matter forevery person and even the refusing personalities are contemplated as ignoramusby major part of society. Pakistan is ranked at 116th least corruptnation out of 175 countries by Transparency International in corruption perceptionindex of 2017 that depicts the picture of public sector institutions(Transparency International 2017) whereas Pakistan police got the 13thposition in police perceptions index by Index Mundi (Index Mundi 2017 ). Thecondition is so lamentable that a candid official is unable to perpetrate hisduties with veracity and truthfulness.Some fairly definitive aspectsidentified by Tim Newburn (1999) about police corruption are “It is ubiquitous-corrupt practices are prevailed in some shape in police forces in all societies”,It is continuing snag and its origin is evidenced from all stages of policehistory”, and it is not only associated with lower ranks but corruption hasidentified at all level of police organization”. Police corruption in not naïve issuebut is found from the early and every stages of police history. Moreover it isa problem that has prevailed in incessant nature so study to explore thedeterminants of this problem is also requisite obligation of researchers.
AsTim Newburn (1999) argued that before identification of police nature andpreventive measures of institutionalized police corruption, it is obligatory toexplore the reasons that give rise to police corruption, what makes itpossible? Mostly literature related todeterminants of police corruption focuses upon the urban police agenciesrelated to developed nations, primarily the United States (Debora, 2010). FurthermoreDebora (2010) suggested that research on determinants of police corruption indeveloping nation should be pursued and models of developed nations should be perpetuatingto be endeavored to developing nations. Allthe developing nations do not experiences the similar level of policecorruption, and their determinants and impact of police corruption are notalways same (Debora, 2010). In this paper we will try to explore the determinantsof police corruption in Pakistan.Knowing about depth of corruptionand exploring its attributes are both basic and essential points to curb thephenomenon of corruption.
Fact-based information is mandatory to detect theextent and nature of the corruption problem, find out the volatility andmethods within passage of time, exploring the roots of the behavior related tocorruption, creating knowledge about vulnerability of different modes ofcorrupt behavior to tackle it, formulating the strategies related to recruitmentprocess, building standard tools to supervise to combat corruption relatedactivities, evaluating performance of existing techniques, maintaining basicstandards of promotion and performance of employee, and determine the humanresource practices to tackle problem of police corruption. Nature, extent, volume andmethodologies related to police corruption can never be same around the world. Everynation has its own religious, social, economic, and societal factors that leadto develop pattern of behavior related to corruption. Although it is very necessaryto keep in view theories related to police corruption but to build upon fruitfuland Research questionsQ #1 Is there a statisticallypositive relationship between officer cadre of police’s corruption and lowlevel’s police officer’s tendency toward corruption?Q #2 is there statisticallysignificant relationship between police officer’s level of education andofficer’s tendency toward corruption? Q# 3 is there statistically significantpositive relationship between police officer’s level of corruption andcorruption in government?Q#4 is there a statisticallynegative relationship between job satisfaction and engagement in corruption?Q#5 is there statistically relationshipbetween salary of official and engagement in corruption by police officials?Q# 6 is there statisticallysignificant relationship between leadership of supervisors and engagement incorruption by police officials? Q# 7 is there a negative relationshipbetween quality and quality of supervision in police force and level ofcorruption?Q# 8 is there statisticallynegative relationship between organizational citizenship behavior andengagement in corruption by police officials?References