Crime and French settlements and it is still

Crime and punishment for the crime have existed since the beginning of mankind. The period of correction dates back from 2000 B.C. to 19th century and modern era. We have come a long way from the time since the time when stealing would be punished by chopping off hand. The concept of “eye for an eye” has changed to a certain extent. There is a shift from vigilante justice to government justice. The period of correction that stands out to me is Formalized penitentiary system (1773) by John Howard. 
He was a philanthropist and prison reformer who believed in the value of association. It was almost 80 years after he died that the Howard Association in London was formed with the aim to promote efficient means of penal treatment and prevention of crime. It was to promote a reformatory and radically preventive treatment for the criminals. The first annual report of the association stated that it focused on the promotion and reformation of prisoners. It encourages prison labor and the abolition of corporal punishment. In 1921 it merged with the Penal Reform League and became the Howard League for Penal Reform, Britain’s biggest penal reform organization today.
However, a prison was not only a psychological punishment that was used at that time period. Sometimes the criminal was transported and was outcast from the community. However, incarceration, or confinement in prison, was the most popular form of criminal punishment as we know. 
Howard’s legacy is significant in creating today’s correction system because there are social reformers working hard to remove capital punishment as they are one of the ancient and barbaric forms of torture as criminal punishment. It included amputation, beating, shackling, dunking, and locking of a criminal. It was popular in British, Spanish, Dutch, German and French settlements and it is still prevalent in many parts of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. 
John Howard’s form of correction used labor as a method of reform for the criminals rather than inflicting them with the same pain that they have caused to someone else. The Howard League for Penal Reform is one of the world’s oldest penal reform charities that promote the most efficient means of penal treatment and prevention of crime. It promotes reformatory, radically preventive treatment for the criminals, and campaigns for a change in a judicial system. 
He has changed the idea of a prison that can perform various functions. It confines people in expectation for a further decision from the justice board, whether it’s a sentence, or a deportation, or other. Sometimes it confines the dangerous people and protects a society from a damage that can wreck. It is also a place to offend the people who deserve it. However, this deprivation of liberty of a person also acts as a therapy to change a person who has done something wrong to the society. It is to rehabilitate them so that they can resume their place in the society and does not resort back to crime again. This deprivation of liberty also acts a mutual reconciliation of perpetrator, victim, and society and brings restoration in a broader sense. It acts as a mechanism to pacify and unify the society.