Crime has to be safe at residential, industrial,

Crime prevention through
environmental design (CPTED) involves making use of a multidisciplinary and
collaborative approach to prevent criminal activities and behaviour by use of
environmental design. The strategies utilized using this method take into  consideration being able to have an influence
on the offender’s decision making process before they engage in criminal acts
(Krehnke, 2009). There are five principles under CPTED that include physical
security, surveillance, movement control, management and maintenance and
defensible space.  CPTED involves
physical design, citizen participation, and 
law enforcement which will be discussed in this paper.

Physical Design

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This involves creation of physical
space in a manner that takes into consideration users of the space created in
terms of their needs and behaviour predictability. The design has to be safe at
residential, industrial, institutional, commercial, parks, road networks and at
open spaces (Krehnke, 2009). The belief and idea behind CPTED is that the
design has to be effectively done and make good use of the build enviroment
such that it results in reduced fear and number of crimes and also improve
people’s quality of life. There should be access control , surveillance and
territoriality.  The design should  have public spaces that are well designed so
that there is optimum use throughout the entire year. Public spaces also need
to be under surveillance by residents so as areas of isolation can be avoided.
Areas that people sit need to have open views so that there is acceptable
activity and behaviour (design for security, 2018).

The design of environments using
this method has a number of strategies that makes the enviroment easy to
manipulate so that certain human behaviour can be influenced. The design has
natural surveillance which is aimed at being able to observe intruders by other
users. A natural access control is available which is aimed at denying access
those under target by offerndes and also making offenders feel vulnerable and
at risk. There is a territorial reinforcement which makes sure that the
physical design creates an influence in order for property users to have a
sense of ownership over it. There are also mechanical forms of surveillance and
access control which makes it enjoyable to use the property. Things such as low
walls and landscaping provides territorial reinforcement for the users. Users
can be able to use their eyes and ears for observation. There is preference of
creating large windows that allow clear views to the pedestrian paths.

For natural surveillance, the design
has to fully illuminate every doorway opening to the outside, ensure that
parking areas can be seen from doors and windows, position restrooms in office
buildings so that those in nearby offices can see, make sure that a building’s
front door can be seen partially from the street. The design should provide
natural access control such that there are 
signs used in directing visitors to buildings entrances and to parking
spaces, streets are designed to make it difficult to cut-through, and also
ensure there are walkways installed in locations that are safe for pedestrians
and not obstructing. Maintenance of the design should be done such that trees
and shrubs are well trimmed from doors, windows and walksyes. Exterior lighting
should be sued at night and remain in working condition, sings and fencing
should be maintained and graffiti removed. Parking areas should be mounted to
high standards with no trash and no potholes. Interior spaces should be fully illuminated
as well.

Citizen participation

Community action groups such as
neighbourhood watch groups take part in implementation of principles of CPTED
and work together with other groups like environmental designers and land
managers. Communities take part in maintaining their facilities and by using
the infrastructure provided for their needs. Citizens as can use installed
emergency phones, intercoms and alarms to report introduces or any form of
conspicuous activity. Citizens should take care of lighting, and any other
facilities so that they are in use constantly and take part in maintenance
efforts and collaborate with law enforcement in preventing crime.

Law enforcement

Law enforcement by various
strategies with use of CPTED. There is reducing in incidences of crime since
genuine users of space are able to use it, there is increased opportunities for
surveillance and offenders planning to commit crime are made to feel
uncomfortable. (Deutsch, n.d). All spaces are clearly defined and designed and
there is use of fencing, doors, and locks to prevent criminal activity. There
is limitation of intruders as they try to find areas that they will not be able
to be seen easily by limiting the access to such areas by use of natural
surveillance. This ensures that sch people are kept away and law is enforced

Based on your analysis, will crime
rates be reduce?

Crime rates will definitely be
reduced by use of this method. With increased surveillance, criminals will feel
unsafe to be in areas where residents and people can easily see them. A study
conducted to determine how effective CPTED approach was at reducing robberies
showed that all CPTED programs had a change in percentage in the number of
robberies from -84% to -30% (Casteel & Peek-Asa, 2000). There were also
reports of changes in robberies between -92% and +7.6% (Casteel & Peek-Asa,
2000). Reductions in number of robberies were highest in designs that used
basic storage, csh control and trainings. This shows that the method if used
effectively can greatly result in reduced cases of crime.


Casteel, C., & Peek-Asa, C. (2000). Effectiveness of
crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in reducing robberies. American journal of preventive medicine,
18(4), 99-115.

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design – Design For
Security. (2018). Retrieved 21
January 2018, from

Deutsch, W. (n.d.). Environmental Design and the Impact on
Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 21, 2018, from

Krehnke, M. (2009). Crime Prevention through Environmental
Retrieved 21 January 2018, from