Crime prevention throughenvironmental design (CPTED) involves making use of a multidisciplinary andcollaborative approach to prevent criminal activities and behaviour by use ofenvironmental design.
The strategies utilized using this method take into consideration being able to have an influenceon the offender’s decision making process before they engage in criminal acts(Krehnke, 2009). There are five principles under CPTED that include physicalsecurity, surveillance, movement control, management and maintenance anddefensible space. CPTED involvesphysical design, citizen participation, and law enforcement which will be discussed in this paper.
Physical DesignThis involves creation of physicalspace in a manner that takes into consideration users of the space created interms of their needs and behaviour predictability. The design has to be safe atresidential, industrial, institutional, commercial, parks, road networks and atopen spaces (Krehnke, 2009). The belief and idea behind CPTED is that thedesign has to be effectively done and make good use of the build enviromentsuch that it results in reduced fear and number of crimes and also improvepeople’s quality of life. There should be access control , surveillance andterritoriality. The design should have public spaces that are well designed sothat there is optimum use throughout the entire year. Public spaces also needto be under surveillance by residents so as areas of isolation can be avoided.
Areas that people sit need to have open views so that there is acceptableactivity and behaviour (design for security, 2018). The design of environments usingthis method has a number of strategies that makes the enviroment easy tomanipulate so that certain human behaviour can be influenced. The design hasnatural surveillance which is aimed at being able to observe intruders by otherusers. A natural access control is available which is aimed at denying accessthose under target by offerndes and also making offenders feel vulnerable andat risk.
There is a territorial reinforcement which makes sure that thephysical design creates an influence in order for property users to have asense of ownership over it. There are also mechanical forms of surveillance andaccess control which makes it enjoyable to use the property. Things such as lowwalls and landscaping provides territorial reinforcement for the users. Userscan be able to use their eyes and ears for observation.
There is preference ofcreating large windows that allow clear views to the pedestrian paths. For natural surveillance, the designhas to fully illuminate every doorway opening to the outside, ensure thatparking areas can be seen from doors and windows, position restrooms in officebuildings so that those in nearby offices can see, make sure that a building’sfront door can be seen partially from the street. The design should providenatural access control such that there are signs used in directing visitors to buildings entrances and to parkingspaces, streets are designed to make it difficult to cut-through, and alsoensure there are walkways installed in locations that are safe for pedestriansand not obstructing. Maintenance of the design should be done such that treesand shrubs are well trimmed from doors, windows and walksyes. Exterior lightingshould be sued at night and remain in working condition, sings and fencingshould be maintained and graffiti removed.
Parking areas should be mounted tohigh standards with no trash and no potholes. Interior spaces should be fully illuminatedas well. Citizen participationCommunity action groups such asneighbourhood watch groups take part in implementation of principles of CPTEDand work together with other groups like environmental designers and landmanagers.
Communities take part in maintaining their facilities and by usingthe infrastructure provided for their needs. Citizens as can use installedemergency phones, intercoms and alarms to report introduces or any form ofconspicuous activity. Citizens should take care of lighting, and any otherfacilities so that they are in use constantly and take part in maintenanceefforts and collaborate with law enforcement in preventing crime.
Law enforcementLaw enforcement by variousstrategies with use of CPTED. There is reducing in incidences of crime sincegenuine users of space are able to use it, there is increased opportunities forsurveillance and offenders planning to commit crime are made to feeluncomfortable. (Deutsch, n.d).
All spaces are clearly defined and designed andthere is use of fencing, doors, and locks to prevent criminal activity. Thereis limitation of intruders as they try to find areas that they will not be ableto be seen easily by limiting the access to such areas by use of naturalsurveillance. This ensures that sch people are kept away and law is enforcedeasily. Based on your analysis, will crimerates be reduce?Crime rates will definitely bereduced by use of this method. With increased surveillance, criminals will feelunsafe to be in areas where residents and people can easily see them. A studyconducted to determine how effective CPTED approach was at reducing robberiesshowed that all CPTED programs had a change in percentage in the number ofrobberies from -84% to -30% (Casteel & Peek-Asa, 2000). There were alsoreports of changes in robberies between -92% and +7.
6% (Casteel & Peek-Asa,2000). Reductions in number of robberies were highest in designs that usedbasic storage, csh control and trainings. This shows that the method if usedeffectively can greatly result in reduced cases of crime. ReferencesCasteel, C., & Peek-Asa, C. (2000).
Effectiveness ofcrime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in reducing robberies. American journal of preventive medicine,18(4), 99-115.Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design – Design ForSecurity. (2018). Designforsecurity.org. Retrieved 21January 2018, from http://designforsecurity.
org/crime-prevention-through-environmental-design/Deutsch, W. (n.d.). Environmental Design and the Impact onCrime Prevention.
Retrieved January 21, 2018, from https://www.thebalance.com/crime-prevention-through-environmental-design-394571Krehnke, M. (2009). Crime Prevention through EnvironmentalDesign. Infosectoday.com.Retrieved 21 January 2018, from http://www.infosectoday.com/Articles/CPTED.htm