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 Cyprus International UniversityFaculty of PharmacyPHR404 LITERATURE SURVEYTopic: Antibiotics An Essay by:Falah BibwatStudent Number: 20156473Supervised by: Asst.Prof.Dr. Tanem Garanti2017-2018Antibiotic Antibiotic is a substance or compound that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria.  Antibiotics belong to a wider range of microbial compounds and are used to treat infections caused by microorganisms, including fungi and parasites. The term “antibiotics” was coined by the scientist Waxman in 1942 to describ e any material produced by microorganisms that contrasted the growth of other microorganisms in a very diluted medium . Antibiotics to treat or prevent certain bacterial infections. It works by killing germs or preventing them from multiplying or spreading. The use of antibiotics is not effective in treating viral infections, such as common cold, influenza, and most types of coughs and sore throat. Many small bacterial infections can be cured by resisting their immune system without the use of antibiotics, so they should not be routinely prescribed. It is necessary to prescribe and use antibiotics properly to help prevent antibiotic resistance. This occurs when one of the bacterial strains becomes unresponsive to one or more antibiotics. Antibiotics are prescribed for people who are highly vulnerable to the harmful effects of infection. They can be classified as follows: People over the age of 75years . Infants who have been confirmed to have a bacterial infection, were not 72 years old, or have a higher risk of infection. People with heart failure. People who use insulin in the treatment of diabetes. People who suffer from weakness In the immune system, either as a result of an underlying health condition such as HIV or as a side effect of certain treatments, such as chemotherapy. There are several cases in which antibiotics can be used as a precautionary measure to prevent infection rather than treat it. This procedure is known as antibiotic prophylaxis. For example, antibiotic prophylaxis is usually recommended before surgery on a particular part of the body is at high risk of infection or when the infection can have devastating effects. This type of preventive treatment can also be used in the following cases, for example: Some types of eye surgery, such as cataract surgery (cataract surgery) or glaucoma (high pressure eye). Joint replacement surgery. Breast implants surgery. Cardiac surgery. Bites or wounds Antibiotic prophylaxis can be used when a person is injured with a high risk of infection, such as a human or animal bite, or when the wound is contaminated. Medical cases There are several medical conditions that make people susceptible to infection, which means that antibiotic prophylaxis should be used. People who have been infected with sickle cell, sickle cell anemia or who have a spleen problem should use antibiotics to prevent infection; spleen plays an important role in purifying the blood from harmful bacteria. Antibiotic prophylaxis is sometimes prescribed for people with recurrent infections that increase the risk of complications. These include: Inflammation of the urinary tract. Genital herpes. Rheumatic fever .Antibiotics should be used according to the instructions on the medicine box, in the accompanying patient information sheet, or in accordance with the instructions of your doctor or pharmacist. Antibiotic doses are used in the following ways: • Oral antibiotics such as tablets, pills, preservatives or liquids that are used to treat most of the light and moderate infections in the body • Topical antibiotics, such as creams, lotions, sprays or droplets, which are often used to treat skin infections • Antibiotics Injectable: It can be given by injection or infusion through direct blood punctuation or muscle injection, and is used in the treatment of the most serious infections. It is necessary to complete the use of prescribed antibiotics, even when feeling better, unless otherwise requested by the health care professional. If a person does not use the full amount of antibiotic prescribed, the bacteria may become resistant to this type of antibiotic. Forget the dose of antibiotics If a person missed a dose of the antibiotic, he or she should use it as soon as it is remembered, and then continue with the antibiotic program as usual. However, if you remember sooner than the next dose, you should skip the use of the missed dose and continue using the medication according to the regular dosage schedule. However, the dose should not be doubled to compensate for the missed dose. There is an increased risk of side effects when two doses are used in a short interval or with each other. Use an additional dose by mistake The unintended use of an additional dose of antibiotic is unlikely to cause serious damage. But that increases the chances of side effects, such as stomach aches, diarrhea and nausea Gastrointestinal disorders are the most common side effect of antibiotics. It affects about 10% of users of these drugs. Side effects of antibiotics on the digestive system include: Nausea. Feelings of malaise. Diarrhea. Puffiness and indigestion. Abdominal pain. These effects are usually mild and should be eliminated once the therapeutic break has ended. You should see your doctor for any additional side effects, not listed above, for guidance. Allergic reactions to antibiotics About 7% of people are allergic to antibiotics, especially penicillin and cephalosporins. The intensity of allergic reactions between light and medium in most cases, and can appear in the form of: Skin rash and pruritus (urticaria urticaria). Coughing. Respiratory wheezing. Narrowing the throat, which may result in breathing difficulties. Small and medium-sized allergic reactions can usually be successfully treated through the use of antihistamines. However, you can see your doctor when you are concerned, or if there is no response to treatment. It is estimated that, in rare cases ranging from 0.01-0.05%, antibiotics may cause severe allergic reactions to life, known as anaphylaxis. The initial symptoms of the delay are usually the same as the previous symptoms, which may lead to: Increased breathing difficulty. Increased breathing difficulty due to swelling and tightness in the neck. Sudden and severe feeling of fear and fear. A sudden and sudden drop in blood pressure may lead to dizziness and mental confusion. Unconsciousness. Anaphylaxis is an emergency medical condition, which may be life-threatening if not treated quickly. Tetracyclines and light sensitivity Tetracyclines can make the skin sensitive to sunlight and artificial light sources, such as solar lights and skin nailing devices. Exposure to bright light should be avoided for long periods of time during the use of these drug..The six major classifications of antibiotics are as follows: Penicillin A person should not use penicillins if he has previously been allergic to an allergic reaction. People with a history of allergic infections, such as asthma, eczema or hay fever, are more likely to have a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to penicillins, but such cases are rare. Patients with an allergic reaction to a type of penicillin are also allergic to all types of penicillins, as allergy is linked to the antibiotic infrastructure. The use of penicillin may not be appropriate when a person has one of the following conditions: Severe renal disease. Hepatic disease. Pregnancy and breastfeeding Women can use most types of penicillins during pregnancy and breastfeeding, according to their usual doses. Therefore, a woman should inform her doctor that she is pregnant or breastfeeding, so that she may prescribe the most appropriate antibiotic for her condition. Cephalosporins If a person has been previously allergic to penicillin, it may also be sensitive to cephalosporins. It may be inappropriate to use kidney patients for cephalosporins. If the doctor wants to prescribe cephalosporin, he or she should prescribe the lowest possible dose. Cephalosporins should not be used when acute porphyria, a genetic condition that may cause skin and nervous problems. The use of cephalosporins is believed to be safe during pregnancy; however, as a precaution, use should be limited when the benefits of treatment are believed to outweigh its potential risks. Breastfeeding mothers should not breastfeed using cephalosporins. Aminoglycosides are usually used to treat life-threatening conditions, such as septicemia; they may also result in kidney damage in people with renal disease.Use during pregnancy is limited to the doctor’s belief that it should be used. Tetracyclines are usually recommended only for extreme need, in the following categories: People with renal disease, except doxycycline, which can be used. People with liver disease. People with immunodeficiency such as lupus, which may cause skin problems, swelling and pain in joints, with fatigue. Children under 12 years of age. Pregnant and lactating women Normal. Macrolides  should not be used in the following cases: In the case of porphyria, a rare hereditary blood disorder. When there is a heart rhythm disorder or a person is at risk of infection, such as atrial fibrillation, where the heart beats abnormally. One type of macrolide, called telithromycin, should not be used when myasthenia gravis is an uncommon condition that causes muscle weakness. The use of one type of macrolide is limited to the use of one type of macrolide, erythromycin (erymax, erythrocin, erythroped or erythroped A). The usual doses of erythromycin can be continued during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Other types of macrolides should not be used during pregnancy, unless recommended by the doctor.  Fluoroquinolones should not be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, one must be very careful while using the antibiotics as besides their great benefits they might cause harm to adults and child when used improperly. Furthermore, the antibiotics must not be used for viral diseases treatment, because the diseases generated out of viruses can never get cured by antibiotics as the human body automatically gets recovered from these common viral infections when the illness has run its course. On the other hand, the antibiotics play effective and crucial rule in recovering the bacterial infections which human beings and divergent types of animals may have. Usually, the antibiotics, or sometimes called antibacterial medicines, may success in healing the bacterial infections by fighting and killing the bacteria through attacking the walls of the infected cells and disintegrate them; in this sense, the antibiotics terminate the growth of the bacteria. However, there are some types of bacteria called; the resistant bacteria; which develop resistance against antibiotics and cannot get killed or terminated. The repeated use of the same antibiotic or the improper use of the antibiotics make the resistant bacteria to grow more powerful and resist the medicines; as a consequence they may cause dangerous and serious harm to the patients. Therefore, the patients can be recovered from the resistant bacteria through using a different type of antibiotics and of course with a good clinical observation and consultation of doctors. To sum up the whole subject, it is of a high significance to say that everyone must know how important the antibiotics are, how they work in healing bacterial infections, and how to cure the bacterial infections which are not recovered because of the resistant bacteria.                   • • ReferencesAndrews, K.T., G. Fisher, T.S. Skinner-Adams. “Drug Repurposing and Human Parasitic Protozoan Diseases.” International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance 4.2: 95-111. PrintCG Prober, PD Walson, J Jones (2000). 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