During a problem since they can use one

During the experimental phase, the researcher relied
on a classroom observation to record the
information needed for research purposes, and this allowed the researchers to
have a firsthand experience with participants and record the data accurately as
it was revealed. Classroom observation is a suitable way to construct a clear idea about
the use of mobile devices in EFL classroom, and to determine its role on affecting
students’ motivation to speak and learn English. Then, the results attained
from this research instruments will be compared with their complements: the
reflective diaries, and the motivation questionnaire. During the observations, the researcher was able to
observe students’ attendance, participation, interaction and engagement with
the mobile devices. Observing the classroom environment permitted the
researchers to view the students’ work and witness the completion of tasks. Since the focus of the study is on the students,
the classroom observation results are presented according to students’ behavior.
In the present study, classroom observation was selected to document the students’
participation, attendance, attention, interest, persistence engagement,
satisfaction, and confidence. To collect the required data, the researcher used
an observation checklist to record down the information of 15 sessions.  The former is going to be treated
qualitatively in texts and passages; whereas the latter will be analysed using
quantitative techniques

Results of Classroom Observation

Field Notes

Technical Issues

In the initial phase of the treatment, 30
out of 32 participants, in MALL classroom, owned smart phones. However, two
participants prefer to use their tablets instead of  smartphones. There was only two students who
did not have a smartphone or tablet. Yet, this was not a problem since they can
use one of the spare emergency mobile devices.

Some of the participants claimed that they
signed up without problems; however, some other students could not complete the
set-up for either technical problems, slow connectivity, or forgetting their
own password. The students themselves found a solution to this by posting the
needed materials on the Facebook group that was created by the teacher.

Another problem we have encountered was
inside the classroom, where some students did not download the needed materials
for classes, thus causing some delays in the class. This issue was solved by
sending the needed materials for learning from the students/ teachers smart
devices using forwarding application share it. Therefore, we asked all the
students to install share it application in their devices because it is a quick
app and it facilitates the exchange of materials. In the oral class, when the
researcher asked students to start listening and watching videos using their own
mobile devices, we have noticed that the students are using devices   smoothly.
One issue, however, was that not all students brought their own earphones, so I
quickly learned another practical issue to have some spare ones for this
situation. Another problem that we have confronted is the low battery life of
some devices. To solve this issue, we asked students to share a device with
his/her colleague. Even with the difficulties experienced in the first few
weeks, nearly all students felt relaxed in using their mobiles for the learning
purposes inside the classroom or for doing projects outside the classroom.

By the third and fourth weeks, these issues
settled down. The two students brought their own smartphones, and listening and
watching from mobile devices went smoothly. Nearly all students saw using the
mobile devices in class as useful, simple and enjoyable. It seems that listening
to the class audio or video on the mobiles was the easiest and most useful activity.
It is also worth mentioning that, students easily moved from using mobile
devices and returning back to face to face learning mode.  The audio and video recordings projects were
going along very smoothly and they had become a natural part of the class,
despite problems with the recording process, this activity was also found to be
easy and useful by a large majority of students.

As teacher played the role of facilitator,
and controller, there were also some negative comments about students being
distracted by their phones using them for non-class related purposes although I
had not observed a big problem with this issue myself. In the mid of the first
semester, in the fourth week, most students were by this stage of the project /course
comfortable with using their mobile devices, enjoying using them and realizing
the educational value of their use in the Blended Learning environment.

In the traditional learning class, the
control group was taught in the traditional way face-to-face mode of learning without
any use of student mobile devices or. In other words, the students were not
allowed to use their mobile technologies, being a smartphone or tablet. The
content of the class was the same as the experimental group classes but with no
use of technology. This class went satisfactorily because like the other
classes the major part of the class was the same oral communication activities.

In this class,  students did not listen or watch to the audio
and video materials as in the experimental 
group, students access the content on their handouts and the mini projects
were done ‘live’ in the class. There were positives and negatives about this
class. On one hand, there was none of the stress of the early stage of the project
as students did not have to learn how to use the mobile devices and none of the
problems of forgotten passwords or network issues. However, conversely, there
was none of the benefits of using technology in the blended learning approach
and none of the special interest and motivation the use of the mobile devices
added to the other classes.

Classroom Atmosphere

In the MALL- class
instruction, the students’ attention was easily captured and most of them were
easily involved in the discussion. It is worth noting that more than half of
students seemed to be enjoying the class activities; they showed willingness
for participation asked questions, sought more explanation and clarification of
certain points which seemed to be ambiguous or misleading. Moreover, they try
to provide each other with additional information they know. However, we can
not ignore the fact that some students are distracted when they received calls,
messages, notifications on Facebook. By contrast, the students, in the traditional-
class instruction, show a high level of attention at the beginning of the
class, but it decreases as the course progressed. Even though, all the students did not
display any inattentive or disrupting behavior, just some of them who asked
questions, sought for clarification, and express their ideas
freely.  In fact, he did his best to make
his course more interesting. However, students seemed passive and they rarely
tried to participate or ask for clarification. It was observed that they were
incapable to speak fluently in English or formulate a correct and coherent
sentence. Their low level of proficiency in English is a handicap for them to
communicate. The observation also revealed that, in both groups, there was some
students who showed a kind of reluctance and hesitation when they speak.

            Furthermore, from the observation,
the researcher recorded that in both groups almost all the students show
enthusiasm to complete tasks and projects in pairs and groups. However, some unmotivated students, in the
traditional class, were less likely to involve actively when they were asked to
work together in the class. Unfortunately, in completing projects outside the
class, some students preferred to work with friends or with people whom they
usually got along with because they did not like being paired up with people
they were not friendly with. While others preferred to work individually.  When a student resisted cooperating with
students who were not his/her friends, that student was advised to be tolerant
and inclusive of everyone in the class.

More importantly, the researcher observed that
students who use mobile devices inside and outside the classroom are more
curious and eager to explore and learn new things than students who subjected
to traditional way of learning. The students’ curiosity reflects their own
interest and motivation for learning. Also, the students in the experimental
group enjoyed learning inside the classroom. In the other hand, participants in
the control group easily get bored. We also observed the increased
collaboration between students when using the mobile devices which was not the
case of the control group. In addition to collaboration, we also observed a
degree of healthy competitiveness among the students, in the experimental
group, when engaged in doing projects, which pushed them to keep trying to
outperform their classmates.  

Lack of confidence, was observed in the
initial phase of the study with both groups, which can be built up only by
speaking and more speaking. The most common reasons are, shyness and fear of
making mistakes. At the beginning of the course, some students became very
nervous or embarrassed when they were asked to share their opinions in
discussions and brainstorming activities because the students had presumptions
that they might be criticized if they wrongly suggested an idea or an opinion.
Some students found themselves at a loss for words when they had to do the
presentation in front of the whole class. The problems of lack of confidence, uneven
participation, and students’ unwillingness
which hindered the development in speaking skill were solved by pairing and grouping the students.

At the beginning of the oral sessions, students in
both groups had little confidence to share their ideas and participate in the
activities. As the course went on, in MALL- instruction classroom, more and
more students participated in the activities and they became curious of what
other students’ points of views were. Finally, all the students were friendly
to each other and every student wanted to talk and involve in the activity. They
were no longer afraid of making mistakes while speaking, they were correcting
each other and helping each other to find the right words.

Classroom Observation Checklist

Through this observation, the researcher
filled the checklist containing different aspects. The results are analyzed in
the following section by using table, and graphs. While observing the classes,
I have made different criteria that were as follows:

Attendance

The figure below displays the rate of
students’ attendance of oral expression class overall the 14 weeks. As showed
in the figure, the attendance rate of the two groups (experimental and control
groups) was high almost of the time. The students’ eagerness to attend oral
class sessions may reflect the students high level of interest, however we can
not ignore the fact that the students’ attendance is compulsory in the
department of English. In other words, the students are obliged to attend
classes. Even though, we have noticed some absences among the participants in
both groups. As you can see on the table, we recorded low attendance among
participants of the control group in session six, and this was after the winter
holidays, yet the students’ attendance in the experimental group was moderate. The
students’ attendance for the control group was moderate in session eleven at
the beginning of the secoDuring the experimental phase, the researcher relied
on a classroom observation to record the
information needed for research purposes, and this allowed the researchers to
have a firsthand experience with participants and record the data accurately as
it was revealed. Classroom observation is a suitable way to construct a clear idea about
the use of mobile devices in EFL classroom, and to determine its role on affecting
students’ motivation to speak and learn English. Then, the results attained
from this research instruments will be compared with their complements: the
reflective diaries, and the motivation questionnaire. During the observations, the researcher was able to
observe students’ attendance, participation, interaction and engagement with
the mobile devices. Observing the classroom environment permitted the
researchers to view the students’ work and witness the completion of tasks. Since the focus of the study is on the students,
the classroom observation results are presented according to students’ behavior.
In the present study, classroom observation was selected to document the students’
participation, attendance, attention, interest, persistence engagement,
satisfaction, and confidence. To collect the required data, the researcher used
an observation checklist to record down the information of 15 sessions.  The former is going to be treated
qualitatively in texts and passages; whereas the latter will be analysed using
quantitative techniques

Results of Classroom Observation

Field Notes

Technical Issues

In the initial phase of the treatment, 30
out of 32 participants, in MALL classroom, owned smart phones. However, two
participants prefer to use their tablets instead of  smartphones. There was only two students who
did not have a smartphone or tablet. Yet, this was not a problem since they can
use one of the spare emergency mobile devices.

Some of the participants claimed that they
signed up without problems; however, some other students could not complete the
set-up for either technical problems, slow connectivity, or forgetting their
own password. The students themselves found a solution to this by posting the
needed materials on the Facebook group that was created by the teacher.

Another problem we have encountered was
inside the classroom, where some students did not download the needed materials
for classes, thus causing some delays in the class. This issue was solved by
sending the needed materials for learning from the students/ teachers smart
devices using forwarding application share it. Therefore, we asked all the
students to install share it application in their devices because it is a quick
app and it facilitates the exchange of materials. In the oral class, when the
researcher asked students to start listening and watching videos using their own
mobile devices, we have noticed that the students are using devices   smoothly.
One issue, however, was that not all students brought their own earphones, so I
quickly learned another practical issue to have some spare ones for this
situation. Another problem that we have confronted is the low battery life of
some devices. To solve this issue, we asked students to share a device with
his/her colleague. Even with the difficulties experienced in the first few
weeks, nearly all students felt relaxed in using their mobiles for the learning
purposes inside the classroom or for doing projects outside the classroom.

By the third and fourth weeks, these issues
settled down. The two students brought their own smartphones, and listening and
watching from mobile devices went smoothly. Nearly all students saw using the
mobile devices in class as useful, simple and enjoyable. It seems that listening
to the class audio or video on the mobiles was the easiest and most useful activity.
It is also worth mentioning that, students easily moved from using mobile
devices and returning back to face to face learning mode.  The audio and video recordings projects were
going along very smoothly and they had become a natural part of the class,
despite problems with the recording process, this activity was also found to be
easy and useful by a large majority of students.

As teacher played the role of facilitator,
and controller, there were also some negative comments about students being
distracted by their phones using them for non-class related purposes although I
had not observed a big problem with this issue myself. In the mid of the first
semester, in the fourth week, most students were by this stage of the project /course
comfortable with using their mobile devices, enjoying using them and realizing
the educational value of their use in the Blended Learning environment.

In the traditional learning class, the
control group was taught in the traditional way face-to-face mode of learning without
any use of student mobile devices or. In other words, the students were not
allowed to use their mobile technologies, being a smartphone or tablet. The
content of the class was the same as the experimental group classes but with no
use of technology. This class went satisfactorily because like the other
classes the major part of the class was the same oral communication activities.

In this class,  students did not listen or watch to the audio
and video materials as in the experimental 
group, students access the content on their handouts and the mini projects
were done ‘live’ in the class. There were positives and negatives about this
class. On one hand, there was none of the stress of the early stage of the project
as students did not have to learn how to use the mobile devices and none of the
problems of forgotten passwords or network issues. However, conversely, there
was none of the benefits of using technology in the blended learning approach
and none of the special interest and motivation the use of the mobile devices
added to the other classes.

Classroom Atmosphere

In the MALL- class
instruction, the students’ attention was easily captured and most of them were
easily involved in the discussion. It is worth noting that more than half of
students seemed to be enjoying the class activities; they showed willingness
for participation asked questions, sought more explanation and clarification of
certain points which seemed to be ambiguous or misleading. Moreover, they try
to provide each other with additional information they know. However, we can
not ignore the fact that some students are distracted when they received calls,
messages, notifications on Facebook. By contrast, the students, in the traditional-
class instruction, show a high level of attention at the beginning of the
class, but it decreases as the course progressed. Even though, all the students did not
display any inattentive or disrupting behavior, just some of them who asked
questions, sought for clarification, and express their ideas
freely.  In fact, he did his best to make
his course more interesting. However, students seemed passive and they rarely
tried to participate or ask for clarification. It was observed that they were
incapable to speak fluently in English or formulate a correct and coherent
sentence. Their low level of proficiency in English is a handicap for them to
communicate. The observation also revealed that, in both groups, there was some
students who showed a kind of reluctance and hesitation when they speak.

            Furthermore, from the observation,
the researcher recorded that in both groups almost all the students show
enthusiasm to complete tasks and projects in pairs and groups. However, some unmotivated students, in the
traditional class, were less likely to involve actively when they were asked to
work together in the class. Unfortunately, in completing projects outside the
class, some students preferred to work with friends or with people whom they
usually got along with because they did not like being paired up with people
they were not friendly with. While others preferred to work individually.  When a student resisted cooperating with
students who were not his/her friends, that student was advised to be tolerant
and inclusive of everyone in the class.

More importantly, the researcher observed that
students who use mobile devices inside and outside the classroom are more
curious and eager to explore and learn new things than students who subjected
to traditional way of learning. The students’ curiosity reflects their own
interest and motivation for learning. Also, the students in the experimental
group enjoyed learning inside the classroom. In the other hand, participants in
the control group easily get bored. We also observed the increased
collaboration between students when using the mobile devices which was not the
case of the control group. In addition to collaboration, we also observed a
degree of healthy competitiveness among the students, in the experimental
group, when engaged in doing projects, which pushed them to keep trying to
outperform their classmates.  

Lack of confidence, was observed in the
initial phase of the study with both groups, which can be built up only by
speaking and more speaking. The most common reasons are, shyness and fear of
making mistakes. At the beginning of the course, some students became very
nervous or embarrassed when they were asked to share their opinions in
discussions and brainstorming activities because the students had presumptions
that they might be criticized if they wrongly suggested an idea or an opinion.
Some students found themselves at a loss for words when they had to do the
presentation in front of the whole class. The problems of lack of confidence, uneven
participation, and students’ unwillingness
which hindered the development in speaking skill were solved by pairing and grouping the students.

At the beginning of the oral sessions, students in
both groups had little confidence to share their ideas and participate in the
activities. As the course went on, in MALL- instruction classroom, more and
more students participated in the activities and they became curious of what
other students’ points of views were. Finally, all the students were friendly
to each other and every student wanted to talk and involve in the activity. They
were no longer afraid of making mistakes while speaking, they were correcting
each other and helping each other to find the right words.

Classroom Observation Checklist

Through this observation, the researcher
filled the checklist containing different aspects. The results are analyzed in
the following section by using table, and graphs. While observing the classes,
I have made different criteria that were as follows:

Attendance

The figure below displays the rate of
students’ attendance of oral expression class overall the 14 weeks. As showed
in the figure, the attendance rate of the two groups (experimental and control
groups) was high almost of the time. The students’ eagerness to attend oral
class sessions may reflect the students high level of interest, however we can
not ignore the fact that the students’ attendance is compulsory in the
department of English. In other words, the students are obliged to attend
classes. Even though, we have noticed some absences among the participants in
both groups. As you can see on the table, we recorded low attendance among
participants of the control group in session six, and this was after the winter
holidays, yet the students’ attendance in the experimental group was moderate. The
students’ attendance for the control group was moderate in session eleven at
the beginning of the second semester. We also recorded a moderate level of
attendance in session 14, the last session in the academic year.nd semester. We also recorded a moderate level of
attendance in session 14, the last session in the academic year.