During policies. Moreover, there are few factors which

During the last few decades, there
have been increased in the role of policy agendas recognising its prospective
to promote economic growth with regards to social and environmental challenges
by the Governments. However, many countries have to go through various
innovation gaps resulting in policy failures and what over comes these
constraints comes under the umbrella of ‘innovation policy’. The important question
is, what does ‘innovation’ means? The oxford English dictionary explains the term
‘innovation’ as: “1. The action of innovating; the introduction of a new thing;
the alteration of something established; 2. The introduction of a new product
on to the market”

When looking at the theory of
‘innovation’ Josef Schumpeter shall be considered as the founding father of
this concept. He draws a clear distinction between ‘Innovation’ and
‘invention’. This view points to two aspects of innovation which are; novelty and

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

There can be found different
approaches on ‘innovation’ which reflects in the policy making process. A
broader approach which focus on a holistic perspective, concentrating on the
complete idea of innovation from the creation of novel ideas as to how they are
executed. Then there is a narrow approach, concentrating solely on inventions. During
the course of time there have been a range of policies and policy instruments
with the help of different motivations used for innovation however it would not
be wrong to say that these policies could be classified majorly into three
types of innovation policy. Mission oriented policies, invention oriented
policies and system oriented policies.

For a society to grow and develop
economically with different social and environmental changes, innovation plays
a vital role. Innovation may be characterised into several dimensions such as
high level of education, efficient research and development, betters job
opportunities, greater growth of market with better and faster products, better
government policies. Moreover, there are few factors which may affect
innovation. For innovation to function it heavily depends on financial support
and other factors such as skilled work force, young entrepreneurs, researchers,
efficient data collection, technology transfers, markets conditions, variety of
several aid programmes design for developing countries and last but not the
least intellectual property rights. Intellectual property is a fast moving and
complex area of law. Intellectual property rights is the term used to describe
the various rights that afford protection to innovative and creative endeavour.
There is a balance within all intellectual property whereby the effort made in
creation of intangible intellectual property is rewarded to encourage further
innovation and creativity.



The transfer of international
goods, capital or services from one country or organization to another country
or organization is termed as Foreign Aid. In this transmission the country that
is at the receiving end benefits out of the aid for itself and its population.
This aid can be in form of financial, economic, military, development or
emergency humanitarian for instance aid that follows natural disasters. It is
not out of the context to mention here that there have been a lot of
advancements worldwide to help others and to explore and outspread all possible
boundaries of international aid, since the time of the passing of the Foreign
Assistance Act of 1961.

The world’s developed and rich
countries settled on contributing 0.7% of their Gross National Income also
known as GNI as official international development aid, yearly. This figure was
agreed on in the year 1970, and since that time even though billions are
contributed to the foreign aid every year, these developed and rich countries are
unable to meet their actual target of 0.7% of their countries GNI. We can take
the United States for instance, supposedly the US is the largest donor of
dollars as aid, however, and it ranks the lowest in terms of meeting the
assigned target of 0.7% of its GNI.

According to statistics, it has had
been observed that the wealth of the donor nations i.e. their Gross National
Income had gradually increased from the 1990’s to the 2000’s. Subsequently, it
can be said that the level of aid attached to that growth should have increase
too by default. Instead, in the 1990s the GNI dropped down, while gradually
increasing in the 2000s (Some of those recent rises, especially the hefty
increases, were almost entirely due to the payoff of debt for a handful of
countries including Iraq.) Given that the overall wealth of rich countries had
boomed, this in effect meant that they lowered their aid to the poorest countries.

On one end where the recipient
country benefits from this aid, on the other end it faces its drawbacks too, it
is correct to suggest that the recipient country is asked to use high-priced
goods and services from the donor country. Additionally, there are times when
the aid is not distributed amongst the one who are in need and the rich nations
use the benefit of foreign aid as a leverage of entering the poor countries markets
to their products, while they disagree access to their own markets for the poor
countries. According to several commentators this money is often embezzled away
forgoing the large projects and purpose of the aid.


The United Kingdom’s department
for International Development leads the UK foreign aid. UK Aid Direct then in
turn helps build a safe, healthy and more flourished world for the people
living in the under-developed countries and in the United Kingdom itself. The
aid was previously known as Global Poverty Action Fund (GPAF) and was
re-introduced as UK Aid Direct in 2014. UK Aid Direct is the principal funding
instrument that awards grants to small and medium sized UK and international
civil society organizations that are working towards reducing poverty and
promoting industrial innovation. It is a matter of record that over 200 grants
have been awarded across 36 countries, since 2010. The UK’s donation is
frequently the second largest in the world in terms of volume. UK is the only
country that is following the UN’s decision of contributing 0.7% of its GNI as
foreign aid. Department for International Development supports small and medium
sized civil society organizations that are based in UK and overseas that are
working towards dealing with major challenges that are faced all over the world
such as poverty for example: food, nutrition and medical care, vaccination of
children from diseases that can be prevented, education, mass migration,
conflict and security. The countries that are eligible for organizations to
implement their UK Aid Direct-funded projects includes are Pakistan, Ethiopia,
Nigeria, Seirra Leonne, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tanzania,
Afghanistan, Bangladesh and India.




Benazir Income Support Programme
was initiated in July 2008 during the government of Pakistan People’s Party
(PPP) and still continues to progress and prosper. It has been implemented in
all the provinces i.e Sindh, Punjab, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, the
program operates in the federally administered regions of Azad Jammu and
Kashmir. Benazir Income Support Programme is the governments Marshall Plan and
the flagship programme to alleviate poverty and for women empowerment. Through
the establishing of Benazir Income Support Programme the foundations of a
welfare state were laid and the government is hiking rapidly to achieve this
goal. Benazir Income Support Programme is an independent authority with the
President of Pakistan being the Chief Patron and Prime Minister of Pakistan the
Executive Patron of the Programme. Additionally, BISP is managed by a high-powered
Board headed by its Chairperson. The Bill was collaboratively passed by the
National Assembly and the Senate. Benazir Income Support Progamme is highly
recognized and cited as an example of international best practices across the
world because of the efficient, effective and transparent technology based
systems. Since its start, BISP has distributed more than Rs 267 billion to the
needy and less privileged people of the country with complete transparency. Benazir
Income Support Programme gets its major donor support from World Bank, Asian
Development Bank (ADB), UK Department for International Development (DfID),
USAID, China, Turkey and Iran. Department for International Department through
its Foreign Aid is working towards promoting peace and prosperity in Pakistan
by supporting and encouraging education, health, reducing unemployment and
supporting economic growth, firming democracy and governance, and building
steadiness in conflict-affected areas example Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Federally
Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan, to restore livelihoods and improve
stability. Pakistan, a country where over 60 million people survive on less
than 1 pound a day is being supported tremendously by the Benazir Income
Support Programme which is funded by the Department for International
Department. This fund assists the people in offering them an amount of just
over £10 a month. As per the statistics UK’s department for International
Development is funding Benazir Income Support Programme with over £200 million
a year.  This contribution amounts to
seven per cent of the scheme’s total cost. More than 235,000 families were
provided with cash support with the help of UK backing for Pakistan’s civil
organization, Benazir Income Support Programme and it is expected that
potentially 441,000 families will be given support by the Benazir Income
Support Programme fund by 2020. The UK has prioritized Pakistan the most for
foreign aid. The money is mainly spent on initiating and advancing education in
areas of Punjab and the country’s poorest people are supported directly by
offering cash. The Pakistani’s are highly regarded for the initiation of a
biometric payment system. This system enables people to use their finger prints
to withdraw money. Through this system the British tax payers are assured that
the help that are providing goes to the people in need, as it was initially
intended. Previously there were conflicts on cash give outs of international
aid in Pakistan. They criticized the cash aid as dole to Pakistan and said
money transfers needs proper scrutiny and can be open to fraud.  However, a lot of political leaders including
Thereasa May defended the criticism and supported the cash give outs saying
this will the people who are in dire need of the money directly. The criticism
was also backed by the National Audit Office de-briefing about the
effectiveness of the cash transfers. The government justified it as an
effective way of providing aid as it reduces the middlemen which in turn
reduces fraud and the cost of distribution of aid is also then minimized.



Benazir Income Support Program provides a lot of schemes for the
benefit of the society which promotes small scale/cottage industries and includes
the Poverty Census as well. For the first time ever in the country, a poverty
census was held to measure the poverty. This census was not only conducted in
Pakistan but was also conducted in South Asia and for the first time data was
collected from 18 crore people which was an estimated 27 million households in
Pakistan. The effective use of GPS devices to monitor the data of the country
for any natural disasters or emergencies was initiated. In a period of one
year, the poverty census compiled and completed data across Pakistan including
Azad Jammu and Kashmir, FATA and Gillgit- Baltistan. Secondly, on the largest
scale ever, cash transfers are practiced on an everyday basis. Through the
Poverty Scorecard Survey, 7.7 million needy families that included four crore
individuals were identified and added to the disbursement of monthly cash
grant. So far, more than 4.7 million families in dire need are receive a cash
grant of Rs.1500 per month. Billions of rupees have been disbursed till date
amongst poorest of the poor. Thirdly, For the first time ever in the country,
Waseela-e-Haq a beneficiary was established that facilitates females who want
to set up their own business as sole proprietor and promoting poor families to establish
small scale industries, such as farming, sewing
business, carpet weaving, embroidery, jewellery, ceramics, cutlery and woodwork.
Such industries plays a very important role in the rural parts of Pakistan
where most of families in the villages depend on these small industries for
income. These industries have gained a lot of name in the urban areas of
Pakistan, where these products are also considered as import quality products
and they have high demand of these products in the foreign market. Generally,
women in rural areas of Pakistan are not allowed to work outside their homes
whereas small industries like these allow these women to become self-employed
and still earn something for themselves and their families. The Benazir Income
Support Program have tremendously helped by giving direct cash transfers to the
women in these areas. Around 11,000 benefited from this facility as interest
free loans up to the limit of Rs.300, 000 were given out to help the recipients
in setting up small businesses. Moreover, through the help of UK aid to The
Benazir Income Support Program which provides monthly cash grants of rupees
1000/ £7 helps these women to buy at least the basic necessities of life,
mothers with children gets additional grants of rupees 1200/£8 per child for primary
school education. Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund provides counseling,
training and monitoring to the startup businesses. Furthermore, the Waseela-e-Rozgar
that provided technical and vocational training through public and private
training to the youth of the country in recognizing their skills and polishing
it. Whereas Waseela-e-Taleem which is a scheme that benefited millions of poor
children who had never attended school due to financial constraints. Enrollment
of 50,000 children have been completed and it is estimated that 2 million
children of ages 5-12 will benefit from this initiative. Agreements have been signed
by Department of International Development and World Bank to implement and
improve the process. Emergency Relief Package is also an objective to start up
immediate assistance to the people who are affected by natural disasters like
bomb blasts, earth quakes, floods etc. Recently, famine affected beneficiaries
of Thar have received additional financial support by Government of Pakistan
through Benazir Income Support Programme. The introduction of Waseela-e-Sehet
which is a Life Insurance worth Rs. 100, 000 to the sole bread earner of the
family in need. The beneficiary family is provided with this Rs. 100, 000 in
case of the death of the bread earner. The premium for the insurance is paid by
BISP. Around 3 million people benefits out of this insurance scheme. The Health
Insurance’s pilot that was launched in Faisalabad from which 74, 000 families
benefited. Insurance worth Rs. 25, 000 is being provided to the poor families. Moreover,
in a country like Pakistan where women are oppressed, Benazir Income Support
Programme makes it possible to give them identity. Over 23 million women have
received their CNIC (national identity card number) including the women from
under developed areas like Baluchistan, Punjab and rural parts of Sindhi and
Upper Northern Areas of Pakistan. The introduction of Technology based Payments
Mechanisms that is the sole reason Benazir Income Support Programme is
recognized worldwide. This technology includes, Mobile Phone Banking, Benazir
Smart Card and Benazir Debit Card. As a result people who did not have access
to the banking sector in Pakistan are now made aware of it. This mechanism
provides an easy and efficient service delivery to the needy. Additionally,
disbursement of millions of rupees among the poor families yet transparency is
the Hallmark of Benazir Income Support Programme. Benazir Income Support
Programme was first to introduce branchless banking for the poor people in
Pakistan. This scheme also gave quick resolutions to people’s grievances and
complaints, if any. These grievances/issues or problems were addressed by the
poor people on computerized systems which is very facilitative.



Given the research and analysis on the statistics of the
data provided above, It would be correct to conclude, on a positive and
affirmative note as Pakistan being one of the UK’s largest recipients of development investment. UK
Aid is working closely with the government of Pakistan on federal and provincial
level benefitting millions of the poorest and most vulnerable people predominantly
through The Benazir Income Support Programme which is not only working for women
entrepreneurs promoting small scale industries and children education but also
worked towards funding of skilled nurses and midwives and doctors to prevent
thousands of women dying in childbirth in rural areas of Pakistan. The Benazir
Income Support Programme has attracted support and appreciation from all over
the world for its trust and transparency. It has been declared as a model
program for aid to the poor and un- privileged families due to which many
international donors and financial institutions are contributing and donating
technical and financial support. Furthermore the The Department for International Development (DfID) in a
recent interview also said the programme was helping the poorest families in Pakistan and was an
efficient and effective way to make sure they had the support they need.It is worth
noting that Pakistan with collaboration with the UK has introduced a biometric
system with finger prints, which makes sure that British tax payers can be sure
that the help they provide in the form of aforementioned aid does go directly
to the poor and needy people of Pakistan which is helping Pakistan grow industrially.
The use of biometric payments surely makes the UK aid programme one of the most
secure cash transfers in the world with zero tolerance approach to fraud, corruption
and political favouritism. Internal monitoring system in Pakistan with collaboration
with UK are also introduced to track the payments made to suitable families, the
neutral third party is allowed to excess the information and the list of suitable
families to confirm the cash transfers and for supervision.

It would be appropriate here to reproduce the statement
of Alison Evans, ICAI’s
chief commissioner who stated “The department has reached millions of people,
providing strong value for money, and helping deliver on the commitment to
leave no one behind”. Additionally, It  is
appropriate to mention the statement of the British Prime Minister Theresa May published
in ‘The independent’ on 3rd of January 2017, where she said “cash
handouts of overseas aid in Pakistan will continue because they get help to
“those who need it most”.