E316k Midterm

o “They are all ignorant of time, either by the sun or moon, nor do they reckon by the month or year; they better know and understand the differences of the seasons, when the fruits come to ripen, where the fish resort, and the position of the stars, at which they are ready and practised. By these we were ever well-treated.”
This quote taken from, The Narrative of Alvar Numez Cabeza de Vaca, written by Alvar Numez conveys a thematic significance of the cultural ideals of the Native Americans having no knowledge of such technological advancements of typical European societies. The natives live a simple life without the luxuries that Alvar is used to, however, they contained a knowledge of survival of the harsh lands in which they inhabit being able to locate food such as prickly-pairs and water. Without this knowledge, Alvar and his companions would have died.

Survival meant that the three Spaniards and their “negro” had to learn the natives’ culture and way of life in order to be accepted by the natives and also in order to support their selves.

o “When the sacrifice was finished, the messengers reported to the king. They told him how they had made the journey, and what they had seen, and what food the strangers ate. Motecuhzoma was astonished and terrified by their report, and the description of the strangers’ food astonished him above all else.”
This quote taken from, Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, whom the author is unknown, shows a thematic significance of cultural interaction and confusion. The Aztecs, having never encountered Europeans before, were confused on the initial intensions that Cortes had for their civilization. A sense of fear overwhelms the natives as the Spanish display their unknown weapons to them and Montecuhzoma begins to grow increasingly curious of the Europeans.

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o “And yet I think they should not have half such sweet content for our pleasure here is still gains; in England charges and loss.

Here nature and liberty afford us that freely which in England we want, or it costs us dearly.”

This quote taken from, “A Description of New England” written by John Smith displays a thematic significance of perseverance and hard work. John is trying to dictate to rest of the colonist that only with hard work will they be able to successfully accomplish their dreams; it will not come easily. He is stating that America is still a very young unknown land and if they continue to just expect things to happen, instead of taking action, the only thing that will result is death. America is still fill of resources and it is there for the taking, but first they must overcome their newly faced obstacles.

o “And I believed and now believe that people do come here for the mainland to take them as slaves.

They ought to be good servants and of good skill, for I see that they repeat very quickly whatever was said to them. I believe they would easily be made Christians, because it seemed to me that they belonged to no religion.”

This quote taken from, “The First Voyage: The West Indies,” written by Columbus presents a thematic significance of observation and curiosity. Both Columbus and the natives have never encountered each other such as the incident of Cortes and the Aztecs however, Columbus takes a different approach and displays peaceful interaction in order to learn who these people are. He makes note of every physical attribute of the natives even noticing battle scars, which is why he begin to believes other have been trying to enslave these natives. He even finds them to be somewhat intelligent being able to communicate with them and even establish trade. This sense of intelligence convinces him that they can be converted to Christianity, which was the Spanish’s secondary goal; the first being gold.

“Taking it for granted that there are Witches in NEW ENGLAND, which no rational man will dare to deny; I ask whether Innocent Persons may not be falsely accused of Witchcraft?”
This quote taken from the document, “Some Miscellany Observations On Our Present Debates In a Dialogue Between S. & B.” by author Samuel Willard displays a thematically significance of the validity of the Witch Trials. Throughout the document B constantly agues the unrighteousness of the trials that have been conducted and how basing a decision of execution based on “presumptions” should never be allowed.

However, S finds the trials fair due to the belief that anyone who acts with the “devil” should be punished like all of the “wicked.” The debate goes on and neither party is able to convince the other of their point of view but it is obvious that B presents the more valid argument basing it solely on the law and fair trial, not assumptions.

“Beloved there is now set before us life, and good, death and evil in that wee are Commaunded this day to love the Lord or God, and to love one another to walk in his ways and to keepe his Commaundements and his Ordinance, and his lawes, and the Articles of our Covenant with him that wee may live and be multiplied …

This quote taken from, “A Model of Christian Charity,” written by John Winthrop conveys a thematically significance of the progressive movement of the Puritans and how they should act as a community of one with no individuals. He states that they must think of themselves and their colony as a “city upon a hill” which sets the model for the rest of the world proving that the Puritan movement is truly beneficial for all and more should follow their example. This quote truly displays the Puritan belief and way of life basing it entirely on the bible.

“And here I cannot but remember how many times, sitting in their Wigwams, and musing on things past, I should suddenly leap up and run out, as if I had been at home, forgetting where I was, and what my condition was: but, when I was without, and saw nothing but Wilderness and Woods, and a company of barbarous Heathen; my mind quickly returned to me …”
This quote taken from the narrative, ” Captive and Restoration” by Mary Rowland provides a thematically significance of faith in God, and spiritual survival. Even as a captive, Mary’s faith remains in God and throughout the narrative speaks of how she will persevere her current endeavor due to the “power” of the Lord. Her faith has kept her alive throughout even in the worse of times.

She uses her faith as an escape from the harsh reality, conveying that having faith is the only way to truly survive.

“This done, we shall probably find that they are formed in mind as well as in body, on the same module with the Homo sapiens Europaeus.”
This quote taken form Thomas Jefferson’s, ” Notes on the State of Virginia” speaks of a thematically significance of understanding other human cultures, finding that even though the Indians may look different and have different values in life, in some ways they carry the same intent.

He describes the Indian’s way of life throughout the passage, convincing himself that the only reason why they act in such manners is because that is their way of life and like the Europeans, have developed their own mentality of culture and survival. Weather it be their definition of “honor” or “force versus finesses” the Indians are simply misunderstood by most, and Jefferson understands that they are not savages, but human beings like his community and himself.

“That your Petitioners apprehend we have in common with all other men a naturel right to our freedoms without Beign deriv’d of them by our fellow men as we are a freeborn Pepel and have never forfeited this Blessing by any compact or agreement whatever.”
This quote taken from the letter, Black Petitions for Freedom, written to Thomas Gage and the House of Representatives strongly advocates a thematically significance of slavery and the divine right of equality.

Throughout the petition, the author, whom is Anonymous, speaks of the cruelty and unfairness that African Americans are enduring, having no “natural rights” as every man should. He speaks of how they were taken from their from their home and forced to be slaves without making such agreement or an acknowledgement of such a contract. He is urging the legislature to consider them as people like everyone else and that they are deserving of their freedom.

“I cannot much boast of much Success in acquiring the Reality of this Virtue; but I had a good deal with regard to the Appearance of it .


This quote taken from, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, conveys a thematically significance of self-improvement. Speaking of how he was told once, he was too proud even when he was not trying to be. He asserts that he desires to obtain a sense of “humility” not only for others but to improve himself as a person.

However, this quote is saying that even though he understands what he must do and even understands the definition of “humility,” he still has difficulty accepting such a virtue because it goes against his own “rules.”

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
This quote taken from the, Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson simply speaks of the thematically significance of independence.

It was a justification the colonies had to essentially commit what was seen as treason, and explain why it wasn’t treason. The colonies saw this as a way to let everyone know this is what they felt was right, for elevation of man-kind and their new world. They no longer desired to take orders from England, and this document essentially led to the American Revolution.

“Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could.

his quote taken from, The Letter to John Adams, March 31st, written by Abigail Adams advocates a thematically significance of women’s equality asking her husband to not over look the “ladies” in their newly declared independence. She even goes on to threaten a revolt if women are not to be permitted natural rights as those permitted to men. She warns that if someone is given unlimited power, what is to stop him or her from becoming the very thing they are trying to escape from. This is why she finds women’s rights necessary, to assert some sort of other point of view within men’s minds.

“Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the clouds, and the Great Sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great Good Spirit make them all for the use of his children?”
This quote taken from Chief Tecumseh’s speech, Words of Techumshe, conveys a strong sense of landownership and overwhelming pride. Chief Tecumseh, outraged by the inequality shown by the Europeans, is calling out for an alliance against this “evil” claiming that the only way for the “red man” to win is to unite. Natives Americans saw the earth as free neutral land for everyone, to be shared by everyone, and this action of selling it does not make sense according to the Natives culture.

“The waves of population and civilization are rolling to the westward, and we now propose to acquire the countries occupied by the red men of the South and West by a fair exchange, and, at the expense of the United States, to send them to a land where their existence may be prolonged and perhaps be made perpetual.”
The quote taken from the excerpt, Westward the Course of Empire, by Andrew Jackson displays a thematic significance of the importance of westward expansion for the future of the nation. He is addressing that the “red men” must be either eliminated or relocated in order to acquire this desired land. This may sound like a wrongful action however, since Jackson claims it is for the sake for the “United States,” he finds the action right and necessary.

“But you may say we are women, how can our hearts endure persecution?”
This quote taken from the letter, Appeal to the Christian Women of the South, by Angelina Grimke is speaking out against slavery from a woman’s point of view. The whole letter is an attempt to persuade the nation to grant their slaves “liberty,” because it is sinful not too.

This quote directly is stating even though she may be a woman, she still knows what is sinful and what is not; men should feel the same. At this time woman had limited rights so for Angelina to speak out in the public manner was fairly farfetched. That is why she challenges other women to do the same, to influence their husbands and end this “crime against God and man.”

“The savage was a Mingo, it’s true; and I make not doubt he is, and will be as long as he lives, a ra’al riptyle and vagabond; but that’s no reason I should forget my gifts and color.”
This quotation taken from, The Deer Slayer, by James Fenimore Cooper is speaking about the moral code of the puritan beliefs or Christianity. Even though Natty is encountered an indigenous human, he see’s him as just another human being and due to his belief in Christianity, he will refrain from acts of violence.

This is a common theme seen throughout the novel, themes of Christianity and humanitarianism; According to Natty, God gave white men these “gifts” to better the humankind and to live in Gods image.

“The mother of slaves is very watchful. She knows there is no security for her children.”
The quote is from The Incidents of a Slave Girl and written by Harriet Ann Jacobs.

The story provides a thematically significance of narrative suffering – an autobiography of the author herself. Harriet Ann Jacobs used sentimentalism and melodrama to dramatize suffering frequently stepping back from actual story telling to explain the corrupt system of slavery that created the circumstances of her life. In her writing here she focused in the female slave experience. The quote defines the very nature of every woman as a mother that whatever she does for the good of his children it will be very hard for her to provide everything for her beloved children.

“To be accused was to be convicted, and to be convicted was to be punished; the one always following the other with immutable certainty.”
The quote is from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave written by Frederick Douglass.

The said quote came from a slave narrative story. It had a thematically significance of the life of an American slave. As slaves, all they have to do is to suffer to get accused and punished where they have no other choice but to follow their masters.

Even if they follow their masters they are not sure of anything, they were not even sure that even if they follow the will of their master they might still be beaten up. It really speaks about the nature of being a slave to being punished even if they all have done their best to please their master.

“This is God’s curse on slavery!—a bitter, bitter, most accursed thing!—a curse to the master and a curse to the slave!”
The quote is from Uncle Tom’s Cabin written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It provided a thematically significance about suffering.

The quote depicts the reality of slavery that it doesn’t only concern the slave but also the master. It may imply that slavery came from God and slaves have accepted that kind of fact because even if evil is committed against them, the slaves always return good thing or kind actions.

“If you show by a chance remark that you see that some particular creature more shameless than the rest has no end of children and no beginning of a husband, you are frowned upon.”
The quote is from The Diary of Dixie written by Mary Boykin Miller Chestnut. It gave a thematically significance of hardships faced during the time of war. This quotation may simply explain the rampant miscegenation occurring in many slaves. It also talks about struggle in life an individual may face.

“Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with, or even before, the conflict itself should cease.”
The quote is from Second Inaugural Address written by Abraham Lincoln. It gave a thematically significance of sadness. It also may suggest a sense of Reconstruction that was needed because of the war that was happening. Lincoln was trying to emphasize in his speech and through this quote that resolving slavery could be possible. The quotation may sounds to have a bit of sadness but it was hopeful for the fact that in time the conflict would finally be over and get right things in the right time.

“And were You—saved—/And I—condemned to be/Where You were not—/That self—were Hell to Me—”
This quotation is taken from the poem I Cannot Live with You written my Emily Dickinson.

The quotation provides a thematically significance of an argument against love. Along the poem the quote explains why she cannot live with her love object, why she can’t die with him, why she cannot rise with him and why she cannot fall with him. She mentioned about hell in the quote to describe that it is too impossible for her to keep up with him. Hopeless is the term for going against the love that she cannot bear anymore.

“I am of old and young, of the foolish as much as the wise/Regardless of others, ever regardful of others,/Maternal as well as paternal, a child as well as a man,…

This quotation is taken from Leaves of Grass: Song of Myself written by Walt Whitman. It provides a thematically significance of appreciation of life. The quotation explains that everything is equal and that people learn from their experiences in life. Everything is good to a person be it old or young there is no difference at all. Everything seems to make sense that every little things contributes to some larger good.

“With all this groping, this mad desire, a great blind intellect stumbling through wrong, a loving poet’s heart, the man was by habit only a coarse, vulgar laborer, familiar with sights and words you would blush to name.”
This quote is from the short story entitled: Life in the Iron Mills written by Rebecca Hardin Davis. This quote offers a thematically significance of good things against bad and tenderness against hardness. The statement makes the readers realize how the reality of living such a hard, cruel, laborious life as that in the iron mills really changes a person. It takes their spirit away.

As said above “the man was by habit only a coarse vulgar laborer”, it depicts oppression of a person that could steal their soul. So it maybe said that people are considered less worthy than their oppressors.

“This American government—what is it but a tradition, though a recent one, endeavoring to transmit itself unimpaired to posterity, but each instant losing some of its integrity? It has not the vitality and force of a single living man; for a single man can bend it to his will.”
This quote is taken from Resistance to Civil Government written by Henry David Thoreau.

It provides a thematically significance of disobedience to the government. The quote says that the government is said to serve a purpose and is likely to remain a feature of American life. Every man make known what kind of government would command his respect as one step toward obtaining it. The author through his statement defines the act of civil disobedience by explaining the thoughts and emotions that should guide it and these include having a sense of rightness and moral conscience.

“The fiend in his own shape is less hideous than when he rages in the breast of man.”
This quotation is taken from Young Goodman Brown written by Nathaniel Hawthorne. It gives a thematically significance of resisting temptation.

It suggests that some of the shame and horror Goodman Brown felt came from his feeling of weakness at having succumbed to evil. Goodman Brown resisted the devil while he still believes that various members of his family and community are godly, but when he is shown, one by one, that they are all servants of devil, he gave in to his dark side completely and grabs the devil’s staff. As based from the quote, the change that comes over him after either waking up from his dream or returning from the ceremony can be explained partially by his shame at having fallen so quickly and dramatically into evil.

“The messages of great poets to each man and woman are, Come to us on equal terms, Only then can you understand us, We are no better than you, What we enclose you enclose, What we enjoy you may enjoy. Did you suppose there could be only one Supreme?”
This quote is taken from the Preface to the 1855 Edition of Leaves of Grass written by Walt Whitman. The quote provides a thematically significance of the idea of individuality and collectivity.

As humans are different individuals there are still aspects that both man and woman have a sense of collectivity. In the sense that in the eyes of the Supreme God all humans are nonetheless equal – given the same rights in life. In Whitman’s writings, he says that he becomes part of every people that he met in his journey and so these people also came to compose his own self.

“When we consider what, to use the words of the catechism, is the chief end of man, and what are the true necessaries and means of life, it appears as if men had deliberately chosen the common mode of living because they preferred it to any other.”
This quotation is taken from the Walden: Economy written by Henry David Thoreau.

The quotation has a thematically significance of being contented in life. It actually depicts a message of a simplified lifestyle and the benefits of having a simple life. To which most men fail to choose. Thoreau through his writings argued that when people go over the true necessaries in life they have excess possessions which require them excess labor and at the same time oppress their spiritual life. Their unnecessary needs forced them to devote all their time to labor and result is loss of inner freedom.

Person’s attempt at luxury proved to have more a hindrance than a help to an individual’s improvement.

• Genre
A literary type or form. Drama is a genre of literature. Within drama, genre include tragedy, comedy and other forms

• Tone
expresses the author’s attitude toward his or her subject. Since there are as many tones in literature as there are tones of voice in real relationships, the tone of a literary work may be one of anger or approval, pride or piety-the entire gamut of attitudes toward life’s phenomena.

Here is one literary example: The tone of John Steinbeck’s short novel “Cannery Row” is nonjudgemental. Mr. Steinbeck never expresses disapproval of the antics of Mack and his band of bums. Rather, he treats them with unflagging kindness.

• Narrative voice
The narrative voice describes how the story is coneyed (for example, by “viewing” a character’s thought processes, by reading a letter written for someone, by a retelling of a character’s experiences, etc.).

• Audience
to whom the author is speaking too

• Simile
A figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, (e.g.

, as brave as a lion).

• Metaphor
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable

• spiritual autobiography
is a genre of non-fiction prose that dominated Protestant writing during the seventeenth century

• sermon
A talk on a religious or moral subject, esp. one given during a church service and based on a passage from the Bible.

• captivity narrative
are stories of people captured by “uncivilized” enemies

• testimonial
A formal statement testifying to someone’s character and qualifications.

• trial
A formal examination of evidence by a judge, typically before a jury, in order to decide guilt in a case of criminal or civil proceedings

• didactic
Intended to teach, particularly in having moral instruction as an ulterior motive.

• secular
Denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis: “secular buildings

• predestination
The act of predestining or the condition of being predestined.

• the Elect
Following Calvin’s beliefs, whether an individual is to achieve salvation or will be damned to the eternal fires of hell was perdetermined by God

• regionalism
refers to fiction or poetry that focuses on specific features – including characters, dialects, customs, history, and landscape – of a particular region

• myth of the noble savage
: A noble savage is someone from a primitive culture who is supposedly uncorrupted by contact with society

• The Great Awakening
• The term Great Awakening is used to refer to several periods of religious revival in American religious history. Each of these “Great Awakenings” was characterized by widespread revivals led by evangelical Protestant ministers, a sharp increase of interest in religion, a profound sense of conviction and redemption on the part of those affected, an increase in evangelical church membership, and the formation of new religious movements and denominations.

• The Enlightenment
• a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine.

• tabula rasa
An absence of preconceived ideas or predetermined goals; a clean slate.

• deism
Belief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universeBelief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universe

• nation
A large aggregate of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country or territory

• nationalism
Patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.

• nationality
The status of belonging to a particular nation

• protagonist
The leading character or a major character in a drama, movie, novel, or other fictional text.

• autobiography
An account of a person’s life written by that person

• aphorism
A pithy observation that contains a general truth

• narrator, also reliable narrator and unreliable narrator
o The reliable narrator is almost never a character within the story, but is usually a 3rd person voice who describes the action.o Either from ignorance or self-interest, this narrator speaks with a bias, makes mistakes, or even lies. Part of the pleasure and challenge of these first-person stories is working out the truth, and understanding why the narrator is not straightforward. It’s also one tool an author uses to create an aura of authenticity in his or her work.

• Personae
is a social role or a character played by an actor

• Rhetoric
• the art of discourse, an art that aims to improve the capability of writers or speakers that attempt to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

• Socratic Method
is a form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas

• Middle Passage
was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa[1][citation needed] were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade

• oral tradition
cultural material and tradition transmitted orally from one generation to another.[1][2] The messages or testimony are verbally transmitted in speech or song and may take the form, for example, of folktales, sayings, ballads, songs, or chants.

• Manifest Destiny
was the widely held belief that American settlers were destined to expand throughout the continent

• Transcendentalism
A 19th-century idealistic philosophical and social movement that taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity

• Civil disobedience
is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil disobedience is commonly, though not always,[1][2] defined as being nonviolent resistance

• Jacksonian democracy
is the political movement toward greater democracy for the common white man symbolized by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters

• Lyceum system
early form of organized adult education, of widespread popular appeal in the northeastern and midwestern United States. The first lyceum was founded in 1826 in Millbury, Massachusetts, by Josiah Holbrook, a teacher and lecturer

• Phrenology
is a pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules

• Spiritualism
is a belief system or religion, postulating the belief that spirits of the dead residing in the spirit world have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living

• Abolitionist
was a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal.

• Antebellum
existing before a war, especially before the civil war

• Knickerbocker School
group of writers active in and around New York City during the first half of the 19th century. Taking its name from Washington Irving’s Knickerbocker’s History of New York (1809), the group, whose affiliation was more a regional than an aesthetic matter, sought to promote a genuinely

• Romanticism
was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

Partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution,[1] it was also a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.[2] It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography,[3] education[4] and the natural sciences

• tall tale
is a story with unbelievable elements, related as if it were true and factual

• anti-hero
is a protagonist who has no heroic virtues or qualities who acts by blurring the line between hero and villain

• omniscient narrator
A story in this narrative mode is presented by a narrator with an overarching point of view, seeing and knowing everything that happens within the world of the story, including what each of the characters is thinking and feeling

• plot
is a literary term defined as the events that make up a story

• turning point
the peak of the story

• climax
a narrative work is its point of highest tension or drama or when the action starts in which the solution is given

• anecdote
is a short and amusing or interesting account, which may depict a real incident or person

1. Archetype
is a universally understood symbol, term,[1] statement, or pattern of behavior, a prototype upon which others are copied, patterned, or emulated. Archetypes are often used in myths and storytelling across different cultures

2. Stereotype
is a thought that may be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things,[1] but that belief may or may not accurately reflect reality.[2][3] However, this is only a fundamental psychological definition of a stereotype.

[3] Within and across different psychology disciplines, there are different concepts and theories of stereotyping that provide their own expanded definition. Some of these definitions share commonalities, though each one may also harbor unique aspects that may complement or contradict the others.


local idiom

A speech form or an expression of a given language that is peculiar to itself grammatically or cannot be understood from the individual meanings of its elements, as in keep tabs on.

4. local color
distinctive, sometimes picturesque characteristics or peculiarities of a place or period as represented in literature or drama, or as observed in reality.

5. “Uncle Tom”
A black man who will do anything to stay in good standing with “the white man” including betray his own people.

6. jim crow
The systematic practice of discriminating against and segregating Black people, especially as practiced in the American South from the end of Reconstruction to the mid-20th century.

7. Underground Railroad
1. A secret cooperative network that aided fugitive slaves in reaching sanctuary in the free states or in Canada in the years before the abolition of slavery in the United States. A secret cooperative network engaged in the clandestine movement and housing of fugitives, such as children removed illegally from the custody of a parent charged with child abuse.

8. Sentimentalism
is the practice of being sentimental, or the tendency to be governed by feelings instead of reason. As a literary mode, sentimentalism has been a recurring aspect of world literature, and is important to the traditions of India, China, and Vietnam.


cult of domesticity – Cult of True Womanhood

was a prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes during the nineteenth century in the United States[1] and Great Britain. Although all women were supposed to emulate this ideal of femininity, black, working class, and immigrant women did not fit the definition of “true women” because of social prejudice. Very few white women fit this ideal either, even those in wealthy households. This of course, did not stop them from trying.

10. Victorian ideals
Among the middle classes the ideal Victorian woman was the ‘perfect lady’. She was not supposed to work outside the home, except in charities; she was certainly not supposed to earn (though some very modest payments for literary and artistic work were considered in order).

A middle-class lady was supposed to run the household efficiently (preferably with the aid of servants) and she was supposed to find fulfilment in looking after her husband and in bringing up the children.

11. Theme
is the central idea or ideas explored by a literary work

12. Autobiography
an account of a person’s life written or otherwise recorded by that person.

13. slave narrative
a literary form which grew out of the written accounts of enslaved Africans in Britain and its colonies, including the later United States, Canada and Caribbean nations.

• Naturalism
a deterministic theory of writing in which it is held that a writer should adopt an objective view toward the material written about, be free of preconceived ideas as to form and content, and represent with clinical accuracy and frankness the details of life; a representation of natural appearances or natural patterns of speech, manner etc.

• Romanticism
the romantic style or movement in literature and art, or adherence to its principles

• Hudson River School
a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. The paintings for which the movement is named depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, including the Catskill, Adirondack, and the White Mountains; eventually works by the second generation of artists associated with the school expanded to include other locales

• short story
a prose narrative of shorter length than the novel, especially one that concentrates on a single theme.

• Poem
a composition in verse that is characterized by a highly developed artistic form and by the use of heightened language and rhythm to express an intensely imaginative interpretation of the subject / expression.

• Ambiguity
doubtfulness or uncertainty of meaning or intention: to speak with ambiguity; unclear, indefinite or equivocal word, expression, meaning.

• Paradox
a statement or proposition that seems self – contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth; any person, thing, or situation exhibiting an apparently contradictory nature; an opinion or statement contrary to commonly accepted opinion.

• Alienation
act of alienating; state of being alienated; state of being withdrawn or isolated from the objective world as through indifference or disaffection.

• Novella
– a fictional prose narrative that is longer and more complex than a short story; also considered to be a short novel.

• Allegory
a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms; figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another.

• Melodrama
a dramatic form that does not observe the laws of cause and effect and that exaggerates emotion and emphasizes plot or action at the expense of characterization.

• Imagery
the formation of mental images, figures or likeness of things or of such images collectively; pictorial images as in works of art; the use of rhetorical images.

• Scansion
the metrical analysis of verse

• Personification
the attribution of human nature or character to animals, inanimate objects notions especially as rhetorical figure; a representation of a thing or abstraction in the form of a person as in art; an imaginary person or creature conceived or figured to represent a thing or abstraction; the act of attributing human qualities to an animal, object.

• Alliteration
the commencement of two or more stressed syllables of a word group either with the same consonant sound or sound group (consonantal alliteration) ; the commencement of a two or more words of a word group with the same letter.

• slant rhyme
rhyme in which either the vowels or the consonants of stressed syllables are identical as in eyes, light, years, yours

• Onomatopoeia
the formatin of a word like cuckoo, meow, honk or boom, by imitation of a sound by orassociated with its referent; the use of imitative and naturally sugesstive words of rhetorical, dramatic or poetic effect.

• Meter
a rhythm of accented and unaccented syllables which are organized into patterns.

• free Verse
– a verse that does not follow a fixed metrical pattern

• Foot
a group of two or more syllables in which one syllable has the major stress, forming the basic unit of poetic rhythm.

• Setting
– the setting includes the historical moment in time and geographic location in which a story takes place and helps initiate the main backdrop and mood for a story. Setting has been referred to as story world; considered as one of the most important element of fiction.

• Symbol
– an object, person, or idea used to stand for or suggest something else with which it is associated with either explicitly or in more subtle way.

• Gothic
noting or pertaining to a style of architecture; characterized by the use of pointed arch and the ribbed vault, by the use of fine wood work and stonework by a progressive lightening of structure.

• Muckraking
to search for and expose real or alleged corruption, scandal, or the like, especially in politics.

• Materialism
preoccupation with or emphasis on material objects, comforts and considerations with a disinterestin or rejection of spiritual, intellectual, or cultural values; the philosophical theory that regards matter and its motions as constituting the universe, all phenomena, including those of mind, as due to material agencies.

• Individualism
It is a social theory advocating the liberty, rights or independent action of the individual; the principle or habit of or belief in independent thought or action; sense of individual character or individuality