CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1 Exploratory Study Research The concept used in this study is based on exploratory study on waqf framework by IIUM Endowment Fund (IEF). The exploratory concept seems relevant to the area of study that rarely discussed from different perspective for example the study from different objective while there is a lot …

CHAPTER survey among the staff will be conductedRead More »

Another type of violence that media shows are through the coverage of terrorist’s attacks. Although the case doesn’t seem to increase public aggression or violence but the study showed that increased coverage of terrorist’s attacks acted as a warning that follow-on attacks will be perpetrated in the near future. Michael Jetter, a professor at the …

Another as a warning that follow-on attacks willRead More »

I would like to make the world more meritocratic or if possible perfectly meritocratic. I always think of a meritocratic society which values hard-work and skill and not only values but suitably rewards it.Following are the elements of a Perfectly Meritocratic Society (from now on called PMS….eh scary name indeed):Political:PMS would not rely on elections for they have a high tendency …

I minor interests.Social:Like most of the societies inRead More »

Sound Financial Package A sound financial package is central to the viability of PPP projects. PPP infrastructural projects usually resort to non-recourse financing and use financial instruments such as equity, debt, supplier and buyer credit. A guaranteed source of income is key to attracting investors to the project. (Merna & Dubey, 2008). A good financial …

Sound key player in the PPP arrangement mustRead More »

Low-Interest Rates & Quantitative Easing: Effects on Financial Markets Introduction: During the early 2000s, Japan’s economy was fighting against deflation triggered by the economic collapse in late 1991. At that time, the Bank of Japan lowered short-term interest rate close to zero in order to stimulate economic growth. Even with low-interest rates, Japan’s economy was …

Low-Interest Easing. This flooded banks with excess liquidityRead More »

Duaa    personal prayer, supplication   Dunya     The physical Universe, as opposed to the Hereafter; sometimes spelled Dunia.     E ECA Export Credit Agency. economics (Islamic) The branch of economics which deals with the specific challenges and opportunities of the Islamic economy; it is based on teachings of the Qur’an and Sunnah and aims to rediscover …

Duaa to Islamic principles does not allow forRead More »

Preceding the execution of computerized frameworks, the human asset work utilized manual paper record keeping and announcing frameworks that were ordinarily unwieldy and exceptionally tedious. These manual frameworks were a noteworthy piece of the part of human asset administration through the majority of the twentieth century. In the 1970s, centralized server PC frameworks were utilized …

Preceding the field. In the 1980s independent programmingRead More »