EFFECT its byproducts when these chemicals are released


I .Department of Biochemistry, Delta State University, PMB 1, Abraka Nigeria. [email protected].

com AbstractThe toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon across theliving systems is now a common knowledge among the scientific community. Whatis lacking is a mini-scale antidote that can be adopted by the inhabitants ofcrude oil producing areas of the world. This was the reason for this study. Thestudy was comprised forty eight female Wister rats divided into six groups ofeight rats each. The rats were fed as described thus.

Group 1: ((normalControl). Group 2:   feed mixed with 5.0goil palm leaf. Group 3: feed mixed with 10.0g oil palm leaf.

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
Writers Experience
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
Writers Experience
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
Writers Experience
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team

Group 4: Feedmixed with 4ml crude oil (Crude oil Control). Groups 5 and 6: Contaminated dietmixed with ground oil palm leaf (5.0 g and 10.0 g respectively). At the end ofexposure periods (three and six months respectively), the rats were sacrificedand the kidney used to prepare supernatant used for the determinations oxidativestress indices (lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity).

The resultsshow that pretreatment of crude oil contaminated diet with oil palm leaf tendto restore values of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity close tocontrol values. Thus, it is pertinent to state that there exist potentials inthe use oil palm leaf in the treatment of crude oil toxicity. And indeedsetting a fresh agenda for further serious scientific investigations   Keywords: Crude oil, Kidney, Lipid peroxidation, Oilpalm, .Xanthine oxidase,    1.0 Introduction Humans and animals get exposed to crude oil orits byproducts when these chemicals are released into surrounding environmentduring oil exploration activities, equipment failures, corrosion, illegalbunkering, usage, oil theft and illicit refining 1-3. Crude oil stimulatesoxidative stress in animals 4, 5. Lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidaseactivity are part of oxidative stress indices.

Lipid peroxidation elicitsoxidative damage in plants and animals and its value in conjunction with alterationsin the level of antioxidants represent a measure of oxidative stress. Similarly,the activity of xanthine oxidase is an example of defense mechanism as well asa measure of oxidative stress 6. Report indicated that crude Petroleum oil isharmful to the kidney and the deleterious action is based on oxidative stress 7.

Many byproductsof the oil palm tree are  medicinal, thejuice  from palm leaves have woundhealing property while the sap is used as laxative 8.This is due to thepresence of  biologically activecompounds rich in medicinal and antioxidant properties 9, 10.  Earlier report confirmed the presence of phytochemicalsnamely flavonoid, tannin and phenols in the leaves of oil palm, hence itsability as an effective antioxidant 11. In fact, oil palm leaf extractcontains more antioxidative phenolic compounds than various green tea extracts 12.Oil palm leaf extract is a potential new source of functional food ingredient,based on reports of its health benefit 13 .This study is aimed at evaluatingthe protective potentials of oil palm leaf against crude oil contaminated dietinduced nephrotoxicity in rats. 2.

0 Materials and methodsThe crude oil used for this study was obtained fromNigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. Thepalm frond used was obtained from Elaeis guineensis tree in Obiaruku,Delta state, Nigeria Forty eight (48) female albino wistar rats with weightsranging from 0.088kg to 0.182 kg obtained from the animal house of Departmentof Anatomy, Delta State University, Abraka were used for this study. The ratswere housed in a standard wooden cage made up of wire gauze, net and solidwoods and left to acclimatize for one week on grower’s marsh and tap water at laboratory temperature of 28C and 12 hour day/ nightregime.

After the acclimatization period, the rats were weighed andgrouped.2.1 Preparation of leaf powder.Theleaves were isolated from the stock and sun- dried. The dried leaf was thenground with domestic kitchen blender into a fine powder and stored in a cleanand sealed plastic container2.2Treatment of animalsThe forty eight (48) female albino wistar rats wereassigned to six (6) groups according to their weights, with eight rats in eachgroup. Rats in the control group which is Group 1 were fed with grower’s marshonly.

Rats in Group 2 were fed with grower’s marsh and 5g of powdered palmfrond. Group 3 rats were fed with grower’s marsh and 10g of powdered palm leaves.Group 4 rats were fed with grower’s marsh contaminated with crude oil (4ml per100g of feed).

Rats in Group 5 were fed grower’s marsh contaminated with crudeoil (4ml per 100g of feed) plus 5g of powdered palm fronds. While rats in Group6 were fed with crude oil contaminated marsh (4ml per 100g of feed) plus 10g ofpowdered palm leaves. The rats in each group were allowed access to cleandrinking water while the experiment lasted. The feeds were prepared fresh dailyand stale feed remnants were discarded regularly. The animals in each groupwere exposed to their respective diets for three and six months respectively. The National Institute of health guidefor the care and use of laboratory animals (NIH, 1985) was adopted all through the experiment     2.3 Collectionof samplesAfter the first exposure period( three months),  four rats from each group were sacrificed andthe kidneys were harvested.

Five grams (5.0 g) of the kidneys were weighed inchilled conditions and homogenized with 5ml of normal saline in a mortar. The mixture was diluted with known amount of buffered salinebefore being centrifuged and the supernatant was transferred into plastic tubesand stored at – 4C before used for analysis within forty eight hours.

This sameprocedure was adopted after six months exposure period.2.4 Determination of lipid peroxidation and xanthineoxidase activityThe activity ofxanthine oxidase in the kidney of rats was measured using the method of Bergmeyeret. al.

14, based on the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid, a molecule thatabsorbs light maximally at 290 nm. A unit of activity is that forming onemicromole of uric acid per minute at 25oC. Lipid peroxidationin the kidney of rats was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactingsubstances TBARS, method of Gutteridge and Wilkins 15. 2.5Statistical AnalysisAnalysisof variance (ANOVA) and postHoc Fisher’s test for multiple comparison was performed using statisticalpackage for social science (SPSS), version 20  to determine statistical significantdifferences between means. P values <0.

05 were taken as being significantlydifferent 3.0 Results and DiscussionThe effects of Elaeisguineensis leaf on kidney lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activityagainst crude oil induced nephrotoxicity in rats after three and six months areshown in tables 1 and 2.  Lipidperoxidation in the kidney rats exposed to crude oil contaminated ( group 4)was significantly (P<0.05) higher in comparison with the control (group 1).Rats fed palm leave pretreated diets (Group 2 and 3) showed significantly lowerkidney levels of lipid peroxidation when compared with the control (group 4).

Moreover, rats fed crude oil contaminated diets that was pretreated withvarious amounts of oil palm leaves (Group 5 and 6) exhibited significantlylower kidney lipid peroxidation level when compared with the control (group 1)and  rats fed crude oil contaminated dietalone (group 4) .  Lipid peroxidation, which is a potential markerof oxidative stress, induce disturbance of cell membrane, and functional lossof biomembranes, that results in inactivation of membrane bound receptors andenzymes 16, 17, 18. The present study shows that the consumption of crude oilcontaminated diet increased the level of lipid peroxidation in rats.  This study shows that exposure tohydrocarbons present in crude oil can lead to oxidative damage of the kidney asevident by the rise in renal level of lipid peroxidation. This is based on thepremise that  metabolism of hydrocarbonspresent in crude oil generate free radicals 19. This is in consonance withprevious studies by 5, 6, 7, 20. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) frond is richin bioactive phytochemicals such as polyphenols and these polyphenoliccompounds are considered to have antioxidant activity that is several foldshigher than that of vitamins C and E 21, 22, 23.

This may be the basis for thedecreased level of lipid peroxidation in the kidney of rats exposed to crudeoil that was treated with oil palm leafThe kidney xanthine oxidaseactivities were significantly (P<0.05) lower in  rats fed crude oilcontaminated diets (group 4) in comparison with all the experimental groups(Tables 1 and 2).Rats fed with oil palm leaf treatedcrude oil contaminated diet  (Groups 5and 6) have significantly higher xanthine oxidase activities in the kidney whencompared with rats fed with crude oil contaminated diet only (group 4).However, rats fed with only oil palm leaf treated diets (Groups 2 and 3) havesignificantly higher kidney xanthine oxidase activity when compared with ratsfed with only crude oil contaminated diet (group 1).Xanthineoxidase is involved in phase one process in the inactivation of xenobiotics inanimals 24.

The increase in the activity ofxanthine oxidase in rats exposed to oil palm leaf treated diet indicatesresponse of the enzyme to enhance the metabolism of endogenous xanthine. Thisis in a bid to increase the production of uric acid, a potent antioxidant 7, 24,25. The decrease in activity of xanthine oxidase in rats exposed to crude oilcontaminated diet alone shows that the metabolism of crude oil hydrocarbonsleads to a reduced ability to produce uric acidNevertheless,the increase in the activity of oxidative enzymes had been reported as ameasure of oxidative stress 26. However, addition of ground oil palm leavesresulted in decrease in toxic effects of crude oil.

This is exhibited in thedecrease in xanthine oxidase activity in rats fed with crude oil contaminateddiets that were pretreated with oil palm leaves. This is due to the ability ofoil palm leaves to act as an antioxidant, protecting endothelial cells of thekidney against reactive free radicals thereby decreasing the level ofantioxidant enzymes 11, 13. Substances with antioxidant potentials possesshealth promoting properties, since they quench free radicals which are involvedin many diseases processes 13, 27, 28, 29 Thisstudy has indicated that the consumption of crude oil contaminated diet canresult in increase in oxidative stress which causes corresponding increases inlipid peroxidation levels and xanthine oxidase activity.

However, the crude oiltoxicities were reversed by the consumption of diets that were pretreated withoil palm leaves. This study, therefore, shows the protective role of oil palmleaf against crude oil induced nephrotoxicity.       References1.     Otitoju O, Onwurah .INE (2007)Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting activity ofbonny light crude oil contaminated diet on wistar rats. Biokemistri J.

19(2):23-282.     Ovuru SS, Ekweozor IKE.(2004)Haematological changes associated with crude oil ingestion in experimentalrabbits. Afr. J. Biotechnol.

3(6):346-3483.     Ogudu AD,.  Esemuede IH.(2013).

Crude oil theft and itsenvironmental consequences: The way forward. J. Nig. Environ. Society.7(4):1-184.     Achuba FI;  Osakwe SA (2003)  Petroleum Induced Free Toxicity in AfricanCatfish (Clarias garieponus).

Fish Physiol. Biochem. 29:97-1035.     Anozie OI,  Onwurah IN (2001) Toxic Effects of BonnyLight Crude oil on Rats after Ingestion of contaminated diet. Nig. J. Biochem.Mol.

Biol. 16:1035-10856.     Achuba FI (2014) Petroleum Products inSoil Mediated Oxidative Stress in Cowpea (Vigna ungiculata) andMaize (Zea mays) Seedlings. Open J.

Soil Sci. 4:417-435.7.     Azeez OM, Akhigbe  RE, Anigbogu CN (2013)  Oxidativestatus in rat kidney exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons.

J. Nat. Sci. Biol.

Med.4(1):149-1548.     Sasidharan S, Logeswaran S,. Latha LY(2012) Wound healing activity of Elaeis guineesis leaf extract ointment.

Int. J. Mol.

Sci. 13:336-3479.      Chong  KH, Zuraini Z, Sasidharan S, Devi PVK, Latha LY, Ramanathan S (2008). Antimicrobialactivity of Elaeis guineensis leaf. Pharmacology online. 3:379-38610. Rout SP, Choudary KA, Kar DM, Das L,Jain A (2009).

Plants in traditional medicinal system-future source of newdrugs. Int. J. Pharm. Pharmaceutical Sci. 5(4):137-14011. Phin KC, Syahriel A,. Ng, SY (2013)Phytochemical constituents from leaves of Elaeis guineesis and theirantioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Int. J. Pharm. Pharmaceutical Sci.5(4)137-14012. Runnie I., Nordin MM, Radzali M, Azizah  H, Hapizah N (2003) Antioxidant  and hypocholesteromic effects of Elaeisguineensis leaves extract on hypercholesteromic rabbits.

ASEAN Food J.12:137-14713.  MohamedS (2014) Oil Palm Leaf: A New Functional Food Ingredient for Health and DiseasePrevention. J. Food Process Technol. 5(2):300-30614.  Bergmeyer  HV, Gacoehm K, Grassl  M (1974) In: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis,HV Bergmeyer (eds).New York: Academic Press.

vol. 2 p. 428–429.15. Guttridge JMC, Wilkins C (1982) Copperdependent hydroxyl radical damage to ascorbic acid.Formation of thiobarbituricacid reactive products.

FEBS Lett. 137: 327-340.16. Halliwell B (1994) Free radicals andantioxidants: a personal view. Nutr. Rev.

5:253-265.  17. Niki E (2008). Lipid peroxidationproducts as oxidative stress biomarkers. Biofactors. 34(2):171-18018.  Greenberg  ME, Li XM, Giugiu BG, Gu  X,, Qin J, Salomon RG,  Hazen S.

(2008) The lipid whisker model ofthe structure of oxidized cell membranes. J. Biol Chem. 283:2385-239619.

  Achuba FI (2010) Spent engine oil mediated oxidative stress in            cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seedlings. EJEA FChe. 9(5):910-917  20. Alisi CS., Ojiako AO., Osuagwu CG,  Onyeze GOC (2011) Response pattern ofantioxidants in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatoxicity is tightly logisticin rabbits. Eur J Med Plants.

1:118-12921. Cowan MM (1999) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.12(4):564-58222.  LeeYL, Jian SY, Lian PY,.  Mau JL.

(2008)Antioxidant properties of extract from a white mutant of the mushroom Hypsizigusmarmoreus.J. Food Compos. Anal. 21:116-12423.  JaffriJM, Mohamed S, Ahmad IN, Mustapha NM, Manap YA, Rohimi N (2011)  Effects of catechin-rich oil palm leaf extracton normal and hypertensive rats kidney and liver. Food.

Chem. 128:433–44124.  EzedomT, Asagba SO (2016)Effect of a controlled food-chain mediated exposure to cadmium and arsenic onoxidative enzymes in the tissues of rat Toxicology Reports  (3) :708–71525.  Achuba FI (2008). African land snail Achatina marginatus, asbioindicator of   environmental pollution.North- Western Journal of Zoology 4 (1): 1-526.  Förstermann U, Xia N,   Li.

H {2017} Roles of Vascular Oxidative Stress andNitric Oxide in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis. CirculationResearch..

120:713-73527.  HybertsonBM,  Gao, B, Bose, SK., McCord JM (2011)Oxidative Stress in health and disease: The therapeutic potential of Nrf2activation. Mol Asp Med 32(4):234-24628.

  GalliF, Piroddi M., Annetti C, Aisa C, Floridi E.,  Floridi A (2005)Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species.

Contrib Nephrol 149: 240-26029.  BarnhamKJ, Masters CL,  Bush AI (2004).Neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress. Nat Rev Drug Discovery.3:205-214          Table 1.  Theeffect of  Elaeis guineensis leafon the level of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the kidneyof rats after three months of exposure to crude oil contaminated diet. Groups Lipid peroxidation (nmol/g  tissue)  Xanthine oxidase activity (units/g  tissue) Group 1 0.35±  0.

05 a 60.04 ±  4.28 a Group 2 0.14 ±  0.02 b 60.

83 ±  1.76 a Group 3 0.10 ±   0.03 b 69.28 ±  3.

34 b Group 4 0.76 ±   0.10 c 42.43 ± 1.78 c Group 5 0.52  ±  0.

01 d 51.09 ±  2.70 d Group 6 0.34  ±  0.01 a 57.

05 ±   5.89 a  Each value represents mean ± standard deviation. n =4 in each group. Values not sharing a common superscript letter in the samecolumn differ significantly at (P < 0.05).Group 1: ((Normal Control). Group 2:   feed mixed with 5.0g oil palm leaf.

Group 3:feed mixed with 10.0g oil palm leaf. Group 4: Feed mixed with 4ml crude oil(Crude oil Control). Group 5: Contaminated diet mixed with 5.

0 g of oil palmleaf. Group 6: contaminated diet mixed with 10.0 g of oil palm leaf.          Table 2.

  Theeffect of Elaeis guineensis leaf on the level of lipid peroxidation andxanthine oxidase activity in the kidney of rats after six months of exposure tocrude oil contaminated diet. Groups Lipid peroxidation (nmol/g  tissue)  Xanthine oxidase activity (units/g  tissue) Group 1 0.42±  0.08 a 62.

04 ±  3.80 a Group 2 0.22 ±  0.

01 b 61.41 ±  2.64 a Group 3 0.11 ±   0.04 b 68.24 ±  2.22 b Group 4 0.

89 ±   0.11 c 38.43 ± 2.66 c Group 5 0.66  ±  0.12 d 54.11 ±  3.50 d Group 6 0.

53  ±  0.06 a 55.44 ±   6.70 a  Each value represents mean ± standard deviation. n =4 in each group. Values not sharing a common superscript letter in the samecolumn differ significantly at (P < 0.05).Group 1: ((Normal Control).

Group 2:   feed mixed with 5.0g oil palm leaf. Group 3:feed mixed with 10.0g oil palm leaf. Group 4: Feed mixed with 4ml crude oil(Crude oil Control). Group 5: Contaminated diet mixed with 5.

0 g of oil palmleaf. Group 6: contaminated diet mixed with 10.0 g of oil palm leaf.