Elements of Fiction, Non-Fiction, Drama and Poetry

Takes place at the begging of the story. The setting, characters and background information is discussed.

Rising Action
The author discusses the conflict or problem and the characters begin to solve the problem.

The problem or conflict is as its worst. and the characters begin to solve the problem.

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Falling Action
The character’s solve the problem

The conflict comes to an end, or the problem is solved.

1st person POV
narrator is the character in the story

3rd person omniscient
all knowing; narrator knows everything that is going on (including thoughts of each character)

3rd person limited
narrator is outside the story but tells the story from 1 character (so reader doesn’t know what others think)

An adventurous journey undergone by the main character or protagonist of a story. The protagonist usually meets with and overcomes a series of obstacles, returning in the end with the benefits of knowledge and experience.

The struggle between opposing forces or characters in a story.

External Conflict
Can exist between two people, between a person and nature, or a machine, or between a person and a whole society.

Internal Conflict
involves opposing forces within a person’s mind.

Direct Characterization
Writer tells reader directly what character is like and/or what their motives are.

Indirect Characterization
Reader Must exercise judgment to put clues together to infer what the character is like, using the character’s, actions, words, or thoughts.

IDC Speech
What does the character say? How does the character speak?

IDC Thoughts
What is revealed through the character’s private thoughts/feelings?

IDC Effects on Others
What is revealed through the character’s effect on other people? How do other characters feel or behave in reaction to the character?

IDC Looks
What does the character look like? How does the character dress?

IDC Actions
What does the character do? How does the character behave?

Dynamic Character
Changes in some important way as a result of the story’s action. Tend to be central rather than peripheral characters (Ex. Telemachus).

Flat Character
have few personality traits and can be summed up by a single phrase (Ex. Suitors)

Round Character
have more dimensions to their personalities; complex as real people are (Ex. Odysseus).

Static Character
Someone who does not change over time; his or her personality does not transform or evolve (Ex. Poseidon).

A contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality

Dramatic Irony
When words or actions of the character(s) of a work of literature have a different meaning for the reader than they do for the other characters; result of the reader having knowledge or information that the other characters do not

Situational Irony
The contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually happens

Verbal Irony
when a writer or speaker says one thing but really means something completely different

A reference to a well known piece of art/literature/music/mythology

The predominant emotion a reader perceives a reader perceives in a literary work.

The associations and emotional overtones that have become attached to a word or phrase, in addition to its strict dictionary definition called denotation.

A moment of sudden insight of revelation that a character experiences.

A scene that interrupts the action of a work to show a previous event.

A character who acts as a contrast to another character (Ex. Athena and Poseidon, Telemachus and Odysseus).

The use of hints or clues in a narrative to suggest future action.

A term used to describe various types of literature.

Consists of the words or phrases a writer uses to represent persons, objects, actions, feelings, and ideas descriptively by appealing to the senses.

certain feelings evoked in readers through words and description. Usually is refereed to as atmosphere of a literary piece, as it creates an emotional situation that surrounds the readers

The central character of a drama, novel, short story, or narrative poem. Could be an Anti Hero.

the character who stands directly opposed to the protagonist.

The time and place in which events is a short story, novel play, or narrative poem take place.

Any object, person, place or action that has both a meaning in itself and that stands for something larger than itself, such as a quality, attitude, belief or value.

The central message of a literary work. It is not the same as the subject, which can be expressed in a word or two.

The writer’s/speaker’s attitude toward a subject, character, or audience is conveyed through the author’s choice of words and detail. Can be serious, humorous, sarcastic, indignant, objective, etc.

writing about real people, places, things and ideas

Purposes of non fiction
-To inform-To give an opinion -To persuade -To entertain

true story of a real person’s life

true account of a person’s life told by that person

Personal Narrative
when the writer presents only one incident from his or her life

Informative Article
gives facts about a specific subject

True-Life Adventure
true tales of heroic deeds or exciting adventures. usually told chronologically

Short work on one subject.

The writer might give an opinion, persuade, or simply narrate an interesting event.

Formal Essay
examine a topic in a thorough, serious, and highly organized manner

Informal Essay
Reflects the writer’s feelings and personality

Newspaper Column
A regular feature, usually appearing daily or weekly in a newspaper, in which a certain writer gives his or her views about the news or about life in general.

The way a poem looks and is arranged.

The words poetry are written in ___, which may or may or may not be sentences.

in some poem, lines are grouped which may have a uniform number of line, or the number of lines may vary.

Repetition of the same sound at the end of words.

Many traditional poems contain this at the end of lines. Called a ____ scheme.

The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words.

repetition of vowel sounds within words

Poetry Imagery
Language that appeals to the reader’s sense of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste.

Figurative Language
Describes ordinary things in a new way. Used to compare one thing to another.

The voice that talks to the reader. May or may not be the voice of the poet.

Literature meant to be performed for an audience in the form of a play.

Cast of Characters
Usually listed in the order in which they will appear

Can change a performance, inspire actors, and create expectations.

A long speech by one actor.

A long speech delivered by a character who is alone on stage.

Typically reveals the private thoughts and emotion of the character.

A conversation between characters. Brings characters to life by revealing their personalities and by showing what they are thinking and feeling as they react to other character.

Scenes are grouped together like chapters in a book

A subdivision of an act in a play. Each usually takes place in a specific setting and time.

Stage Directions
a set of instruction (often in italics).

Comments made by a character, but not heard by the other characters onstage. Usually the character speaks directly to the audience.

Provides information to the audience, revealing private thoughts of the character.