Elements of Poetry 1

Verse
2 major meanings: any single of line of poetry or any composition in lines of more or less regular rhythm

Lyric poetry
Short, subjective poem expressing thoughts and feelings of a single speaker. Brevity, melody, and emotional intensity.

Sonnet
Italian word “sonneto” that means little song. A traditional and widely used verse form, especially for love poetry. A fixed form of 14 lines, traditionally in Iambic pentameter. Shakespearean and Petrarchan forms.

Shakespearean sonnet
Aka English sonnet. Rhyme scheme of 3 quatrains and a final couplet abab cdcd efef gg. May shift in tone or mood between any big the quatrains or the couplet.

Petrarchan sonnet
Aka Italian sonnet. Rhyme scheme divided between an octave and a sestet. Stable rhyme scheme: abba abba. Sestet is more flexible but usually use cde cde or cd cd cd.

Ode
Lyric poem characterized by a serious topic and formal tone but no formal pattern. In other words, length, meter, rhyme, and form varies based on writers needs.

Elegy
Lament or sadly meditative poem. Usually about death, style is serious

Epigram
A very short poem, usually comic, ending with a sharp turn of wit or meaning

Aubade
A love poem with the coming of dawn either being celebrated or denounced a nuisance.

Sestina
A challenging form where the line-ending words are repeated in successive stanzas in a designated rotating order. Consists of 6 6-line stanzas, concluding with a 3-line envoi which incorporates all the line-ending words, some hidden inside the closing lines. Prescribed pattern for using the six line-ending words is: 1st stanza: 123456, 2nd: 615243 3rd: 364125 4th: 532614 5th: 451362 6th: 246531 envoi: 2-5, 4-3, 6-1

Villanelle
Derived from the Italian words “villano” (peasant) and “villanelle” (rustic song or dance). Originally a song dance sung by a Renaissance troubadour, with a pastoral or rustic theme and no form. The modern villanelle is 19 lines with 6 stanzas- 5 tercets and 1 quatrain. The first and third lines of the first tercet rhyme and the rhyme is repeated through the next 4 tercets and last 2 lines of the quatrain.

Triolet
A short, French, lyric poem of 8 rhymed lines that include 2 rhymes and 2 refrains. Has 8 lines and the rhyme scheme is ABaAabAB. First, fourth, and fifth lines are identical, as are the second and final lines, thereby making the initial and final couplets identical as well.

Limerick
A short and usually comic verse form of five anapestic lines usually rhyming aabba. The first, second, and fifth lines traditionally have 3 stressed each; third and fourth have 2 stresses each, ( 3, 3, 2, 2, 3). Often obscene

Acrostic
A poem in which the initial letter of each line, when read downward, spell out a word or words

Haiku
A Japanese form that has 3 unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables. Traditional haiku is often serious and spiritual in tone, relying mostly on imagery and usually set in a season

Tanka
A Japanese form that has 5 unrhymed lines based on the following syllable pattern: five, seven, five, seven, seven.

Idyll
(Also called a pastoral poem or eclogue) a short poem that describes rustic or pastoral life

Terza rima
(Italian for 3rd rhyme)