English 10- Poetry Worksheet Vocab + Lessons

Method of unpacking a poem by examining the different levels of meaning.
1. Interpret words used.
2. Interpret imagery.
3. Interpret poetic devices used.
4. Interpret poetic techniques
5. Put all the information together and find out meaning of the poem.

Metaphor
A comparison between two different things in which one is said to be another (without using like or as)

Simile
Direct expressed comparison between two different things that are resembled in at least one way but not limited to using the words “like” or “as”

Personification
Giving inanimate objects, animals, or ideas human-like traits/qualities.

Posthumously
After death.

Lyric
Short poem expressing personal thoughts and feelings clearly.

Stanza
Division of poem usually according to pattern. Often similar to paragraphs.

end-stopped
To end with a comma that indicates a pause

enjambment
The running on from one line to another without any end punctuation so the thought continues without a pause into the next line.

metrical (traditional) poetry
Poetry written with a regular rhyme. A like of this poetry is made up of a fixed number of feet.

syntax
Study of the pattern of sentences according to grammar and formation of sentences.

meter vs foot
Meter: rhythm of poetry
Foot: unit of rhythm (alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables)
Certain metrical feet have names

iambic vs trochaic foot
Iambic: unstressed, stressed (foot of two syllables; a short followed by long)
Trochaic: stressed, unstressed (foot of two syllables; a short followed by long)

iambic pentameter
Most common meter in the English language metrical poetry that has a fixed number of five iambs. The average line have ten syllables.

How do stress marks work?
They mark where and how syllables should be said. When “__” is above an unaccented syllable, there is a weak stress. When ” / ” is above an accented syllable, there is a strong stress.

Free verse and rhythm
Free verse does contain rhythm but it is not regular. Sometimes called cadence because it is closer to ordinary speech than regular rhymes and metrical verse.

Sonnet
Complex lyric poetry that is 14 lines long and has been popular for centuries. In English, written in iambic pentameter. Shakespearean sonnet consists of three quatrains and a couplet in a strict rhyme scheme (abab cdcd efef gg). One method of structure is to use each stanza as points in an argument and the couplet for the resolution.

What kinds of poetry genres are there?
Lyric, ode, ballad, epic
* Each of the above could be written as free verse or in any of the traditional meters.

Lyric poem
Short poem that expresses the emotions or thoughts of the writer. Sonnets, odes, and elegies are examples. Lyrics are the words of a song so a song is of lyric.

Ode
A poem expressing lofty emotions. They often celebrate an event, or are addressed to nature or to some person, place, or thing.

Ballad
Narrative poem that tells a story that is often in a straightforward and dramatic manner. Ballads were once songs. Literary ballads often have the strong rhythm and plain rhymes of songs. Some song ballads still exist are are still written.

Epic
Long poem that is often about a heroic character. The style l is elevated and the poetry usually represents religious or cultural manners.

Alliteration
The repetition of initial sounding words.

Assonance
Like rhyme, but only the repeated vowels are/are almost the same. A different type of assonance: half rhyme because the consonants match, but the vowels do not.

Dissonance
The use of discordant or unpleasant sounds creating disharmony to make a harsh-tone effect.

Onomatopoeia
Word(s) whose sound seems to resemble the sound it represents.

Rhyme
The repetition of the same sounds. Syllables, entire words, or groups of words can rhyme. As a rule, rhyme consists of he last stressed vowel and all the sounds after it. It is usually found at the end of a line but can sometimes be found within the line (internal rhyme).

Apostrophe
A figure of speech addressed to someone who is dead or absent, or to an inanimate object.

Synecdoche
Similar to metonymy except that a part of something is used to stand for the whole thing.

Metonymy
Figure of speech that uses an attribute of a thing or something associated with the thing to stand for the thing itself. (Substitution of one word for another closely associated with it)

Symbolism
The use of one thing to represent something else. Although symbolism is similar to metonymy, the association may be arbitrary, or the symbolism may be invented by the author. It embodies an idea while a metaphor illustrates a quality.

Literally vs Figuratively
Literally: Sentence is exactly what it states
Figuratively: Describing something in a way that does not mean exactly what it states but it is known within society.

Conceit
A very elaborate extended metaphor.

Reference
Direct mention of something that is related to whatever is being discussed.

Allusion
An indirect reference so they can be more difficult to recognize and understand. Authors often expect the readers to have certain knowledge beforehand to usually historical, mythological, and religious subjects.