English Poetry Test (1)

Form
Design of a poem as a whole, the configuration of all its parts.

Closed Form
Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku, limericks, and sonnets, which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form.

Open Form
A poem of variable length, one which can consist of as many lines as the poet wishes to write. Every poem written in open poetic form, therefore, is unique. Open poetic form contrasts with closed poetic form, in which the specific subgenre of poetry requires a predetermined number of stanzas, lines, feet, or other components.

Blank Verse
Best known one line pattern for a poem in english. Unrhymed iambic pentameter. about three quarters of all english poetry is in blank verse.

Tercet
Group of 3 lines that usually keep to one rhyme sound.

(are any three lines of poetry, whether as a stanza or as a poem, rhymed or unrhymed, metered or unmetered. The haiku is a tercet poem.)

Example. I am a yellow dog
who wishes he was
a purple-spotted frog.

Quatrain
are four line stanzas of any kind, rhymed, metered, or otherwise.

Example

The sense of danger must not disappear:
The way is certainly both short and steep,
However gradual it looks from here;
Look if you like, but you will have to leap.

Epigram
Short poem ending in a witty or ingenious turn of thought, To the rest of the composition is intended to lead up

EXAMPLES:
(1) Here lies my wife: here let her lie!
Now she’s at rest – and so am I.

(2) Candy
Is dandy,
But liquor
Is quicker

Acrostic
poem in which the initial letter of each line spells out a word or words.

Ex: M-oney
O-ver
M-unchies (MOM)

Stress
accent greater amount of force given to another.the emphasis that falls on certain syllables and not others; the arrangement of stresses within a poem is the foundation of poetic rhythm.

we place a stress on the first syllable of words such as Eagle, Impact, Open, and Statue, and on the second sllable in Cigar, mystique, precise, and until.

Meter
a recurrent, regular, rhythmic pattern in verse. When stresses recur at fixed intervals, the result is meter. Tradionally, meter has been the basic organizational device for world poetry.

Example:
“a TROT a TROT a TROT”

“A CANter, a CANter, a CANter” every third syllable

caesura
a pause within a line of verse. Traditionally, caesuras appear near the middle of a line, but their placement may be varied to create expressive rhythmic effects. A caesura will usually occur at a mark of punctuation, but there can be a caesura even if no punctuation is present. often indicated with (II)

End stopped

Run on Line

-if a line ends in a full pause usually indicated by some mark of punctuation.

-a line that does not end in punctuation and that therefor is read with only a slight pause after.

Iambic Meter
a line made up primarily of iambs, an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. The iambic measure is the most common meter in English Poetry.

Example on paper

Dramatic Poetry
presents the voice of an imaginary character speaking directly without additional narration by the author
-poet and speaker are independent of one another

example:
DREAM it was in which I found myself.
And you that hail me now, then hailed me king,
In a brave palace that was all my own,
Within, and all without it, mine; until,
Drunk with excess of majesty and pride,
Methought I towered so big and swelled so wide

Dramatic Monologue
Written as a speech made by a character at some decisive moment. Speaker usually addressing a silent listener.

Example (My Last Duchess)

Narrative Poetry
a poem that tells a story. Narrative is one of the four traditional modes of poetry, along with lyric, dramatic, and didactic.

Example (Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers) pg.636

Simile
figure of speech in which two fundamentally unlike things are explicitly compared, usually in a phrase introduced by like or as.

Example (Batter my heart, 3 personed God)
“I, like an usurped town to another due,”

Analogy
a likeness or similarity between things that are otherwise unlike.

Ex:
“I am going to be Toast when i get home”
“You are annoying as Nails on a chalk board”

Oxymoron
figure of speech in which contradictory terms appear side by side, a compressed paradox

Example: (Pretty Ugly) (Great Depression) (Clearly Confused)

Allusion
a statement that hints at something rather than being direct. a brief (and sometimes indirect) reference in a text to a person, place, or thing-fictitious or actual. May appear as an initial quotation, a passing mention of a name, or a phrase borrowed from another writer.

EXAMPLE
Saying to someone, “boy you look really tired, have you been getting enough sleep” instead of telling someone they look old because of wrinkles under their eyes is an example of an allusion.

Couplet
a two-line stanza in poetry, usually rhymed, which tends to have lines of equal length. Shakespeare’s sonnets were famous for ending with a summarizing, rhymed couplet

Example
(Give my love fame faster than time wastes life;
So thou prevent’st his scythe and cooked knife”)

Closed Couplet
two rhymed lines that contain an independent and complete thought or statement.

“True wit is nature to advantage dressed,/What oft was thought, but ne’er so well expressed” (Alexander Pope).

Sonnet
a fixed form of fourteen lines, traditionally written in iambic pentameter, traditionally used verse, especially popular for love poetry.

Villanelle
a fixed form developed by French courly poets of the Middle Ages in imitation of italian folk song. Consist of six rhymed stanzas in which two lines are repeated in a prescribed pattern.

Lyric Poetry
a short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker. Often written in the first person, traditionally has a song-like immediacy and emotional force

Denotation/Connotation
-a meaning as defined in a dictionary.

-overtones or suggestions of additional meaning that it gains from all the contexts in which we have met it in the past

Definition of Poetry
basically language arranged in such a way that it suggest something beyond its literal meaning.

Imagery
generally means a word or sequence of words that refers to any sensory experience. often this experience is a sight (visual imagery), but it may be a sound (auditory imagery) or a touch (tactile imagery, as a perception of roughness or smoothness). It may be an odor or a taste or perhaps a bodily sensation such as pain, the prickling of gooseflesh, the quenching of thirst, or the perception of something cold

Assonance
the repetition of two or more vowel sounds in successive words, which creates a kind of rhyme. May be used to focus attention on key words or concepts. helps make a phrase or line more memorable.

Example;
Occur initially (“all the aWful aUguries”)
Internally (“whIte lIlacs”) (the i’s <--)

Euphony
The harmonious effect when the sounds of all words connect with the meaning in a way pleasing to the ear and mind.

Example; found in Tennyson’s lines,
“The moan of doves in immemorial elms, / And murmuring of innumerable bees.”

Alliteration
the repetition of two or more consonant sounds in successive words in a line or verse or prose. was a central feature of Anglo-Saxon poetry and is still used by contemporary writers.

(Initial Alliteration)-used at the beginning of words (“cool cats”)

Internal Alliteration)- used internally on stressed syllables (“In kitchen cups concupiscent curds”-which combines both)

Masculine End Rhyme
Either a rhyme of one syllable words (as in fox and socks) or in polysyllabic words- a rhyme on the stressed final syllables: (con-TRIEVE and sur-VIVE)

Rhythm
the pattern of stresses and pauses in a poem. a fixed and recurring rhythm in a poem is called meter.

Personification
a figure of speech in which a thing, an animal, or an abstract term is endowed with human characteristics. Personification allows an author to dramatize the nonhuman world in tangibly human terms.

Example:
“The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky”
“The run down house appeared Depressed”

Enjambment
The continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza

Example:
“I think I shall never see
a poem as lovely as a tree”

Slant Rhyme
a rhyme in which the final consonant sounds are the same but the vowel sounds are different

Example: (as in letter and litter, bone and bean)

Rhyme & Rime
A rime is part of a word that contains the vowel and all that follows, such as the ite ending. Words that would be considered rimes for ite are sprite and white. “LIGHT” would be considered a rhyme because it sounds the same but not a Rime because the ending of the word.

Strategies for Reading Poetry
begin by reading poem once strait through, read open mindly and yourself experience what you find
(2) dont dwell on troublesome words or difficult passage
(3) on second reading read for exact sense of all the words; if there are words you dont understand look them up in the dictionary. dwll as long as you need to.
(4) read the poem again aloud, or listen to someone else reading it