EnvironmentVulnerability through Land Use and Land Cover Changes: A Case study RanthambhoreTiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India Bhanwar vishvendra Raj Singh * Dr. Anjan Sen**Senior Research ScholarDepartment of Geography, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, [email protected] Abstract Currently,massive anthropogenic pressure on land ecosystem services which is affecting local, regional, and globalclimate processes. The process of land-use and land-cover patterns haveaffected and will continue to affect physical and socio economic vulnerability inecosystem services. In order that tigerspecies is a barometer for healthier ecosystem services, but nowadays, these species hasa critical condition and also an endangered species according to IUCN, 2017.Therefore, we are devoting million dollars commitment for Tiger conservationprogramme.
Tiger conservation is providing all ecosystem services such as supporting, provisioning, regulatingand cultural services. But cultural services are stronger in all of them. At present, the growing demand for these services has put an immense burden on the ecosystem services.Therefore in this research, the Environment Vulnerability due to Land Use andLand Cover Changes: A Case study Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India.This research based on the primary and secondarydatabase but almost based on secondary data sources. After, dataanalysis has been done through ArcGIS, Erdas, andSPSS Excel software. This method is an assessment of the vulnerability of LULC of Tiger Habitat, which has been the outcome of highlyhuman encroachment near protected areas. The results show that how tiger habitat ecosystem services increaseor decrease from physical and socioeconomic vulnerability of LULC.
The entire ecosystem servicesof tiger corridor have identified the zoningof vulnerability, which will be interlinkedwith forcommunity development, Consensus building for management, to develop holistic,inclusive and sustainable development method for tiger corridor habitat atgrass route level, which is more sustainable for human wellbeing and future earth. Key Words:Ecosystem Services, Vulnerability, Sustainable Development, Tiger conservation INTRODUCTION Nowadays, Land use land cover (LULC) is changing veryrapidly due to an anthropogenic and natural phenomenonoccurring at local to global scales. Land cover changes bring up to conversionand modification of vegetation, changes in biodiversity, soil quality, runoff,erosion, sedimentation and land productivity (Xiubin, 1996).
Therefore, therehas been a decline in biodiversity over the last four decades, attributed inlarge part to habitat fragmentation and land conversion (Butchart et al.,2010).According toIPCC, 2006 (The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) estimated that 1.
86billion tons of carbon are out annually due to LULC & Climate Change, but especially impact on major part is tropicaldeforestation, and it is a key source of carbon emissions and an active supplierto global warming and climate change.Although LULC are caused by external and internal driversand it has been influenced by many traditional and modern resource managementpractices (Campbell et al., 2005). the changes in the land use in nature is theresult of human encroachment through urbanization agriculture development anddifferent developmental activities. Most of the biodiversity areas face thegrowing problems of human-wildlife conflict, loss of natural vegetation andopen space. The process of degradation of biodiversity often leads to haphazardgrowth through envies species of flora and fauna in the terrestrial ecosystem.In the ecosystem services, human-induced disorders such asland use land cover (LULC) changes, quality of air, water and soil, and lossesof productive lands and biodiversity are increasingly threatening ecosystemproductivity and health on the local, regional and global scales. (Wali et al.
,1999).In the context, the carrying capacity of natural resourcesin the ecosystem services is most vulnerable. Especially in the biodiversity,every flora fauna has contributed to thefood web ecosystem. As well as some spices are the most icon of a healthyecosystem for the food chain. In this regard, Tiger is a representation ofhealthy and wealthy wildlife which is considered as a viable wild animal in themaintaining for Universal Food Chain System. The major impacts through LULC change in buffer zonessurrounding protected ecological reserves have important implications for themanagement and conservation of these protected areas.
In the Ranthambhore tiger reserve, Agriculture expansion dueto increasing population has been regarded as one of the primary causes of LULCchange and deforestation and a major source of carbon emissions fromterrestrial ecosystems. The pattern of LULCin the RTR change, in buffer areas because of this is most vulnerable areas dueto anthropogenic activities surrounded the Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve.The RTR is the most famous tiger habitat in the world andalso its cover through the dry-deciduous forest, the vegetation of Ranthambhoreis considered as Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest, and Tropical Thorn Forest(Champion and Seth, 1968).The RTR landscape surrounding buffer areas influences theircapacity to maintain ecosystem functions and achieve conservation objectives.As anthropogenic magnification continues, it is important to display land-useand land cover change in and around RTR habitat areas. LULC measure land-coverchange surrounding buffer areas within the Ranthambhore tiger reserve inRajasthan. In order that tiger is icon healthy ecosystem services.
Through conserving and saving tigers the entire wilderness ecosystem isconserved. Tigers play a crucial role in the health of the ecosystem. Tigers siton top carnivores in the ecosystem and are at the zenith of the food chain. Theremoval of a top carnivore from an ecosystem can have an impact on the relativeabundance of herbivore species within a guild. The interdependency of livingforms in a food chain is obvious as the wild tiger is dependent upon herbivoresfor its survival where he maintains there population which in turn prevents thegrasslands from being overgrazed.
Thus, we are doing million dollars investment in thiswild animal. Because of Tiger Supports Livelihood, Protects Genetic Diversity brings Rain, Prevent Climate Change,a symbol of our National Pride. So thatwhy, Recently AnimalPlanet surveyed, the tiger was voted the world’s favorite animal(Animal Planet, 2011)