Everyhuman born as different individual, some have differences in their physic andsome have differences in their psychology. Discrimination comes as the resultof differences, some people who cannot accept the differences they will doanything to make other people who does not same as them feels uncomfortable.There is so much discrimination, and racism is the branch of discrimination.Racism is discrimination based on racial, racial identical with skin color,shape of eyes, language, religion, and may just from our origin. Today, the term of racism is used morebroadly to apply to racial unfairness and discriminatory beliefs, actions,desires, projects, persons, groups, social institutions, and practices (Garcia,1997: p. 1436). Racism has been hereditary from generation to generation,recurrent feature of the social sciences has been efforts to prove that thereare inherited racial and gender differences these efforts, although earlierdebunked, become reincarnated under different guises (Fairchild, 1991: p.
101).People who do not accept the differences between each other, create the gap andsocial classification based on race and put them self in top of classification.This social classification inherited from generation to generation and makes thegreat depression in America society.Sincethe social classification exist in society, people who felt himself and hisraces better and at the top of the classification will doing racialdiscrimination to the other races. It was because they felt that they were morepowerful and civilized than other races. When discussing racism, according toJoseph in (Srivanto, 2001: p.13-15), there are two conflicting perspectives,the first is racism in the scientific perspective of human effort to identifyboth of ethnological and anthropological about the origins of man and classifyhumans based on patterns physical possession. Racism is also understood as thenon- scientific perspective that is a form of prejudice.
In this case racism isa belief (belief) that human beings can be differentiated into various racesand a member of a race will be inferior to other races. Basically the termracism is used to identify people and not to classify people based on theirphysical condition, but at the field people use racism to classify people andas a reason to deal inappropriate action toward other races. There is muchcontradiction between das sollen and das sein in this novel. Das sollen meaneverything that is necessity, or that required us to think and act inparticular in the face of certain problem or reality. Das sollen also can beinterpreted as everything that should happen or something based on theory andbased on the rules should occur. Das sollen determine every human to respecteach other, every religion also teach us to respect each other.
Any religionsaid that every human has same value in the presence of God, religion neverdistinguish human depend on their skin color, racial, or tribe but depend ontheir faith and piety, so no matter you are God only see you based on your faithand piety. It was not only determine byreligion but also determine by government. Every government has their own ruleto prevent discrimination and punish offender of discrimination.Das sein in To Kill A Mockingbird novel is differentwith Das sollen, the notion of das sein is anything that is execution ofeverything that set in das sollen. In this novel there are so much racialdiscrimination between white skin people and black skin people. The examples ofdas sein in this novel are people always called them as negro. not only calledthem as negro but they also seeing them as human with lowest degree, ineducation black skin people have small chance to study, in job opportunityblack skin people also considered inappropriate to work in office, they onlyget job from the field as laborers with low payment, and in living environmentthey also get different place with white skin people.Inthis research, the researcher would like to present the condition or therepresentative of racism on the novel “ToKill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee.
The researcher will analyze Harper Lee’snovel using sociology of literature approach. Racism viewed as a problem thatnot only derived from individual psychology or pathology, but also from thepattern of cultural representations embedded with practice, discourse, and thesubjectivity of Western society (Barker, 2004: 266). According to Oliver C. Cox(1948) that all the values that they have “unacceptable”,”right”, and “good”; and conversely all other public values”unacceptable”, “wrong” and “ugly”. The onlydifference between ethnocentrism and racism ethnocentrism is that thedifference not based on the grooves of a racial or skin color. Thisstudy chosen because the researcher interested to study about literature, andthe researcher wants to know about the effect of racism in that era, so the researchertry to study and to understand, and try to present the condition of racism inUnited State in that era. Racism alwaysbe an interesting problem to discuss, and from the novel “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee the researcher want to feelthe social and political condition, and to feel the racism that know as great depression in 1930th throughcharacter of Calpurnia and Tom Robinson.
The novel tells the story that represents asituation that thought to reflect real life, or to stimulate the imagination(Danesi 2010: 75). Many novels, tells about life in the past. The novel takesthe theme of racism have also been many published, as in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, written by NelleHarper Lee. The novel is set in the 1930s when Recession Massive (GreatDepression) in the town of Maycomb, Alabama. A.
PreviousStudyThere have been relevant previousresearchers investigated Harper Lee’s “ToKill A Mockingbird” novel, theirresearch support this research paper as follow:Winarni,B. (2013) investigated Affection and Prejudice In To Kill A Mockingbird Novel By Harper Lee (1960); A PsychoanalyticApproach. The study examined the affection and prejudice in To Kill A Mockingbird. The study revealsthe major character reflects his affection and prejudice in this novel based onthe psychoanalytic analysis. The study was descriptive analysis used To Kill A Mockingbird as primary datasource and other sources as secondary data sources, the study applied someapproaches, structural analysis approach used to analyze the element of novel,and psychoanalytic approach used to analyze the structure of major character’spersonality in To Kill a Mockingbirdnovel. The study found that the problemof the major character causes the conflict, it resulted prejudice because ofthe struggle to find the fact about the case of his client, after all hischange of social status makes him be respected by society. Second, Hatmani, W.
(2014) analyzed Parenting Style ofAtticus Finch in Harper Lee’s To Kill AMockingbird novel through behaviorist perspective. The study was aqualitative research using descriptive analysis. The study found that theauthor illustrated psychological phenomenon that influenced by environment,parenting style was the environment that gave impact on child’s personality.Parenting style could forming habit, behavior, and provide model, which bereference of child’s.ThirdFitrisari, M. N. (2016) on her study titled READER RESPONSE TO RACISM IN HARPER LEE’S NOVEL: TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD. The study analyzedracism by using reader responses to show reader responses about racism on theGoodRead website.
The study was a qualitative research, used GoodRead websiteas primary data, and other resources as secondary data. The study found thatthere are 18 issues on reader responses. Gender, age, race, country, andreligion as background of the readers.
Racism victim will lost their humanright as the causes of the readers disagrees’ reason. The readers interested inracism issue because it was showed that Tom Robinson rape white people despitehim never do that. B. Problem StatementsProblem statement is significant for any research.It makes the research become more understandable. Based on the title and thebackground of the study, this study takes the problem of “How is racismreflected in Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird?” C. Objectivesa.
Toanalyze the novel based on its structural elements.b. Toanalyze racism in the novel based on the Sociological approachD. Limitation of the StudyIn this study, theresearcher’s focuses on the analysis of Racism in Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird novel (1960) basedon the Sociological approach. E. Benefitsof the Study1. TheoreticalBenefitThe result of this study is expected to be usefulfor the readers about the story of ToKill a Mockingbird, thus they may know the causes and the impact of racismin human life.2.
PracticalBenefitThe researcher also hopes it can give contributionto the further researchers who want to conduct the similar term of study withdifferent topic. F. PaperOrganizationThe research paper of “RacismReflected in Harper Lee’s To Kill AMockingbird (1960): A Sociological Approach” is divided in thirty-onechapters. The details of paper organization are; Chapter I is introduction, itconsist of background of the study, limitation, research question, significanceof the study, and paper organization. Chapter II is literature review, itconsist of underlying theory and previous study. Chapter III deals with the socialbackground of America society in early of twentieth century.
Chapter IV isstructural analysis. It consist of structural analysis of the work, whichinclude structural elements of To Kill AMockingbird such as the character and characterization of the novel,setting, plot, and other elements of the novel. Chapter V is Sociologicalanalysis. It consists of the sociological analysis of the major character in ToKill A Mockingbird.
Chapter VI is conclusion and suggestion.