EXPERIMENT TITLE: MUD DENSITY.NAME : UKWU DAVID NNAEMEKA.MATRICULATION NUMBER: 15CN03270?ABSTRACT.
The experiment is the show or measure the density of mud, the test for density explains the phenomena of oil floating on water, this is basically because of the relational ratio of mass of the fluid to the volume. A mud balance is used to determine this, as the name implies, balance, it is structured to put the mud to balance. The apparatus used, is created in such away the equilibrium of the instrument is reached as well as the density being found. ?AIM OF EXPERIMENT.
To determine the mud density of mixture of water and bentonite.To determine the density of water, bentonite and barite.?TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION.2. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS OR EQUIPMENTS.3. CALIBRATION4.
PROCEDURE.5. RESULTS6. DISCUSSION7. CONCLUSION.?INTRODUCTION.The Density of specific volume of mud or liquid is ascertained by using a instrument called the mud balance. The handle of this equipment is graduated and give almost precise or accurate measurements.
The equipment has a total of graduations on the handle, with various measurement range. The mud balancing equipment is created in such away that the cup chamber is constant volume, that is there is no change in its diameter or height. At the other end of the handle is the shot well or the legshot , which helps it to counterbalance the weight in the cup, there is a ring like free slider that also helps in the counterbalance of the instrument.There are four graduations done on the mud balance or scale• In pounds per feet cube.
• Specific gravity.• Psi per 1000 feet.• Pounds per gallons.The various units measuring ranges are ;• 49 – 179lbs/ft3• 0.
79 – 2.72 specific gravity.• 340 – 1190 psi/1000ft.• 6.5 – 230 lbs/gal (ppg).?EXPERIMEENTAL APPARATUSThe equipment consist of a fixed volume cup chamber with a top cover lid, a handle that has the 4 different density unit graduated scales to read the immediate density of mud, a shot well or a leg shot.1.
4 scale mud balance.2. Spatula3. Electric mixer4. Measuring cylinder.5.
Weighing balance.Fig 1: 4-scale mud balance.Fig 2: Electric mixer.?Fig 3: Electric weighting balance.CALIBRATION.1. Remove the cover of the cup chamber and totally fill up the cup with water or ionized water.2.
Put back the lid on the top, mean while excess water and air bubbles are being removed due to attempted compression.3. Wipe off the droplets of water around the cup and also the lid, to enhance accuracy in the equilibrium. Also reduce the effect of eternal factors.
4. Place the equipment on the base, fixing it on the fulcrum.5. Then balance the instrument by sliding the free rider to 8.33ppg, if the level bubble vial doesn’t centre, increase or deduct shot from the well shot at the other end of the instrument. ?PROCEDURE1.
Measure 350ml of water with the volumetric measuring flask, 2. Measure, gradually 35g of bentonite, on the electric weighing balance.3. Pour the measured water in to the mixing cup, for mixing the fluid.4.
Fix the mixing cup on the electric mixer, as it starts spinning, gradually pour in the bentonite sample, to achieve a good fluid thickness and to prevent lumps.5. After the thorough mixture, remove the mixing cup from the mixer.6. take cover or lid off , the cup, then totally fill up the cup chamber with the sample mud.7.
Place back the cover and twist it at the top to ensure some sample mud spills out of the single centered hole on the lid. To maintain the accurate sample volume.8. Wipe off the expelled mud.9. Fix the balance arm on the base, with the two projected knife edge fixed to the fulcrum.10.
Slide the rider till the equipment is properly levelled. Which is indicated my the levelling bubble vial on the beam.11. Record the value, in all four scales. 12. Measure 10g of barite and add to the sample 1, giving sample 2.
13. Mix thoroughly, and repeat the process again?RESULTS. Density measurements Mud Lbs/gal (ppg) Specific gravity Lbs/ft3 Psi/1000ftSample 1 8.75 1.
5 65.5 450.5Sample 2 9.05 1.85 68 470Sample 1: water + bentonite.Sample 2: sample 1 + barite.
?DISCUSSION.All equipment must be cleaned thoroughly before the experiment because debris or dirty can cause errors in our experiment.Also, even a single droplet of water on the cup can have an infinitesimal change on the experimental result, because when balancing, more weight can be more accumulated than the usual or prescribe weight needed for the experiment, which can alter the balance point and density reading.In the petroleum industry, the bentonite mixture have love density, if in relation to our practical result, then to increase the density of the drilling fluid we than add some quantity of barite. We add barite to increase density, so as to increase or control the pressure, as pressure depends on the depth and the density. This is done to control the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling mud.
Ph = Mud density × TRUE VERTICAL DEPTH × 0.052.Ph = hydrostatic pressure.PRECAUTIONS.1. I ensured, I avoided error due to parallel, by reading at the meniscus level2. I ensured to clean up all mud particles on the body of the cup, and water droplets .
3. I ensured that when mixing the mud, it didn’t spill, 4. I ensured that the mixer blade doesn’t come in contact with the mixing cup, to preserve the equipment.
5. I ensured to always filled up the cup without giving space to air bubbles and excess mud.CONCLUSIONTaking everything into account, the mud density test is an imperative test required and furthermore utilizing the 4-scale mud balance is an extremely effective technique to complete the mud density test and furthermore barite can be utilized to build mud weight.?REFERENCE.http://www.slideshare.net/AppleGreen6/mud-density?from_m_app=androidimages from http://google.com/images