EXPERIMENTAL is used as a heat transfer fluid

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON REFRIGERATION SYSTEM USING (CNT, GOLD & HAUCL4) NANO-FLUIDSaDr.S.Sundararaj, bK.Mohan, cR.Nelson and dD.Deepan BabuabcdDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.ABSTRACT:In this paper the experimental analysis on performance of a Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS) with Nano fluids is done. Nano fluids are a new class of fluids which have solid particles of 1-100 nm suspended in them. Nano-fluids along conventional heat transfer fluids will have higher thermal conductivity. In this paper nano fluids with CNT and HAuCl4 is suspended with conventional lubricant (Polyalkylene Glycol) and the COP (Coefficient of Performance) is obtained, the amount of nanoparticles has been used in 0.1% & 0.2% vol. fraction of PAG. The COP of VCRS with CNT, Gold & HAuCl4 is calculated. The addition of Nano particles to the refrigerant results in improvements in the thermo-physical properties and heat transfer characteristics of the system, thereby improving the performance of the refrigeration system.Key words: Coefficient of Performance; Vapour (COP), Compression Refrigeration System (CRS), Refrigerant; Nano fluids;INTRODUCTIONThe refrigeration system is almost found in many parts of the world for various purposes such as food preservation, cooling system etc. The refrigeration system consumes a considerable amount of power. The performance of the refrigeration system depends upon the heat transfer capacity of the refrigerant. Normally R12, R22, R600, R600a and 134a are used as a refrigerant 1. For example, the average power consumption of one-ton air-conditioner is about 3000KW per year and for refrigerator it is about 1500KW per year 2. Nano fluid is used as a heat transfer fluid to improve the performance of the refrigeration system, one way of improving the coefficient of performance of the system is to increase the thermal conductivity of the refrigerant. The thermal conductivity of the fluid increases with increase in concentration of Nano particles. 13. With the use of nanoparticles in refrigerant or lubricant, consumption of power reduces and freezing capacity of the system increases in almost all cases. 3 With the help of Nano fluids the following results will occur? Increase in surface area which results in more heat transfer? The clogging of the particle can be reduced? By varying the proportions of the Nano fluids the thermal conductivity can be varied.a) Variable Compression Refrigeration systemThe process of moving the heat from one place to other with in a controlled condition is called as refrigeration. And moreover a reduction in the power consumption (10.87% & 13.04%) along with faster cooling (from 410C – 250C) is also achieved when nano-refrigerants are used. 6 The input to the system is given in the form of mechanical energy through motor to compressor. Nano particles (CNT, HAuCl4, and Poly Alkaline Glycol) are added to the base fluids (water, ethylene, glycol and oil) they form a new form of fluids with improved thermal properties.b) Properties of refrigerant and Nano particlesR-134a-Tetrafluoroethane (bt-260C, ?-4.2kg/m3), CNT (k-3500 Wm-1K-1, ?-2.3g/cm3), HAuCl4 (H – 0.3%, Au – 57.9%, Cl – 41.8%, k-315 W m-1K-1, ?-3.5 g/cm3), and poly alkaline (? -1600 kg/m3, flash point-497 K and pour point-228 K).MATERIALS AND METHODSa) Experimental MethodThe experimental set up consists of a compressor, condenser, and expansion Device and an evaporator section here the Capillary tube is used as an expansion device. The evaporator is coil type which is loaded with water. Service ports are provided at the inlet of expansion device and compressor for charging the refrigerant. The mass flow rate is measured with the help of flow meter fitted in the line between expansion device and drier unit. The exergy analysis can be done for various components• specific exergy e = ?h – T ?s• Condenser exergy (?E) =(ec x m – (1- (T/T0) )?hc x m)• Evaporator exergy (?E) = ((1-(T/T0) ?he x m – ee x m )• Capillary Tube exergy (?E) = ?s x m• Compressor exergy (?E) = ?s x mFig. 1. Experimental setup of VCRSb) SpecificationTable I. Specification of experimental set upS.NoComponentsSpecificationsQuantity(% Vol.fraction)1Compressor220v12Condenser13Evaporator14Capillary Tube0.5-2.28 mm diameter15Pressure gauge0-100 psi46TemperatureSensorup to 573 K47RefrigerantR134a-8Nanoparticle20-60 nm(0.1&0.2)9HauCl4(Gold Nano fluid)10ml(0.1&0.2)10GOLD10ml(0.1&0.2)11Energy meter240v112Poly Alkaline Glycol250ml-c) Preparation of Nano fluidsIt involves two steps in first step the Nano particles are produced as dry powder and in the next step they are dispersed in a base fluid like water. The Nano fluid will be prepared using a probe sonicator. The refrigeration system using Nano-fluids from their result the COP of refrigeration system with various Nano-fluids have great improvements. 12Fig. 2. Probe SonicatorIt uses ultrasonic vibrations to suspend the Nano particles (CNT, Gold and HAuCl4) in the fraction of 0.1% & 0.2% volume with base lubricant. The Nano fluids increases COP but their applications are hindered due to factors like long term stability, high pressure drop, high pumping power etc. 16Fig. 3. Before and after sonicationd) Type and Percentage of nano particle and input Parameters of VCRSThe experiment will be carried out with Nano lubricant in 0.1 and 0.2% vol. fraction.Table II. Volume fraction and quantity of nano particlesS.noType of Nano-particle%Vol. fractionQuantity1Gold0.10.25 ml2Gold0.20.5 ml3HAuCl40.10.25m4HAuCl40.20.5 ml5CNT0.00525 mgThe input parameters measured from the VCRTable III. Input parameter from VCRSS.noParametersRange1Power input622 W2Evaporator temperature range-15 to 15 0C3Voltage range200 to 250 V4Motor typeCSIR5Liquid temperature450C6Compressor coolingFanRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONa) Time taken to cool water from 250C to 40CThe below figure shows that the time taken to the conventional lubricant is higher than the Nano lubricants. It is also found that the time taken is minimum for 0.2% Gold + CNT with Lubricant.Fig. 4. Cooling Vs Concentration of Nanoparticles in LubricantThe above figure shows that the time taken to the conventional lubricant is higher than the Nano lubricants. It is also found that the time taken is minimum for 0.2% Gold + CNT with Lubricant.b) Theoretical and Actual COPFig. 5. COP Vs Concentration of NanoparticleFigure 5 shows that the actual COP is lesser than the theoretical COP also the actual COP is higher for 0.1%gold + CNT when compared to the other nano particles.c) Water temperature vsActual COPFig.6. Water temperature vs & HAuCl4Figure 6 shows that the actual COP is maximum for 0.1%HAuCl4, whereas 0.2%HAuCl4 and conventional COP are lesser in range when compared to the actual COP.Fig.7. Water temperature vs & goldIn figure 7 it is found that the actual COP is maximum for 0.1%gold up to 160C and after 160C it is maximum for 0.2%gold it shows that COP value can be altered by varying the water temperature.Fig.8. Water temperature vs & 0.2% gold + CNTIn figure 8 the conventional and 0.2% gold values are same at a particular temperature (at100C) but while increasing the temperature of the water the actual COP is maximum for 0.2% gold.Fig.9. Water temperature vs & 0.1% gold + CNTIn figure 9 the actual COP is compared with the 0.1% of gold and 0.1% of gold along with CNT it is noted that the mixture of 0.1% Gold + CNT attained the maximum COP, also their difference in range of COP between gold and conventional is large.Table IV. Various losses in VCRSThe table IV shows the Various losses in compressor, condenser, capillary tube and evaporator. The COP of the system can be increased by reducing the losses in the components (compressor, condenser, capillary tube and evaporator) different types of lubricants with different proportions are added to the lubricant to improve the COP of the system. The power consumption of the compressor reduces by 25% when the Nano lubricant is used instead of conventional method 10.CONCLUSIONThe addition of Nano-particles in the VCRS has shown significant increase in the COP of the system. There is also a reduction in time to cool the water from higher temperature to lower temperature. The cooling time reduction also comes with comparatively lower heat loss in the evaporator when Nano-particles were added. Nano particles increases the thermal conductivity by 51.1%. 14 The coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system also increases by 33% when the conventional POE oil is replaced with Nano refrigerant 10. The refrigeration system using Nano-fluids from their result the COP of refrigeration system with various Nano-fluids have great improvements. 12Nomenclature :Thermal condictivity k,Density ?,Bt boiling temperature,Coefficient of performance COP,Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS)REFRENCES1.” Refrigeration And Air Conditioning” by C.P. Arora,Third edition, published by Tata McGraw Hill.2.D. Sendil Kumar &Dr.Elansezhian “Experimental study onAl2O3 –R134a Refrigerant in Refrigeration System” International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol. 2, Issue. 5. Sep-Oct- 2012 pp-3927-3929.3.R. Reji Kumar & K. Sridhar & M.Narasimha ” Heat transfer enhancement in domestic refrigerator using R600a/mineral oil/nano-Al2O3 as working fluid” International Journal of Computational Engineering Research-Vol. 03.Issue 4 April-2013.Type of lubricantTime taken to cool(s)Input power(watts)Loss in compressor(watts)Loss in condenser(watts)Loss in capillary tube(watts)Loss in evaporator(watts)Conventional277389.260.1590.640.820.1400.1% gold202477.80.1580.200.650.1340.2% gold209981.020.1730.390.690.1430.1% HAuCl4206066.90.1690.360.750.0890.1% gold+CNT206063.430.1600.380.640.1210.2% gold + CNT162392.50.1860.330.710.1354.Vaishali P. Mohoda , Nishikant W. Kaleb ” A Review on Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Nano-particles Suspended With Refrigerants/Lubricating Oils in Refrigeration Systems” International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering Volume 2, Special Issue 1 MEPCON 2015.5.Kuljeet Singh & Kundan lal “An Investigation into the Performance of a Nano-refrigerant (R134a+Al2O3) Based Refrigeration System” IJRMET Vol. 4, Issue 2, Special- 2 May – October 2014.6.T. Coumaressin and K. Palaniradja “Performance Analysis of a Refrigeration System Using Nano Fluid” International Journal of Advanced Mechanical Engineering.ISSN 2250-3234 Volume 4, Number 4 (2014), pp. 459-470.7.Tarun Sharma, Kundan Lal Rana “An Experimental Investigation of Nano-refrigerant Based Refrigeration System” International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 4, Special Issue March 2015.8.P. Kannan, A. Manivanana “Theoretical analysis of a vapour compression refrigeration system with R134a, R290, R600a &Various ratio of R290/R600a” International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET). Volume 4 Issue VI, June2016 ISSN: 2321-9653.9.Teshome Bekele Kotu & R. Reji Kumar “Comparison of Heat Transfer Performance in Domestic Refrigerator Using Nano-refrigerant and Double Pipe Heat Exchanger” International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (International Journal on Mechanical Engineering), ISSN (PRINT) – 2231 –6477, Volume-3 Issue-2, 2013.10.Majid I. Abdulwahab, S.M.Thahab ” Experimental Study of Thermophysical Properties of TiO2 Nanofluid” Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Vol.17 No.2 (June 2016) 1- 6 ISSN: 1997-4884.11.N. Subramani , M. J. Prakash “Experimental studies on a vapour compression system using nanorefrigerants” International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology Vol. 3, No. 9, 2011, pp. 95-102.12.N. Kamaraj, A.Manoj babu “Experimental analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System using the refrigerant with Nano particles”(International Conference on Information And Engineering System-2016).13. Mahesh Suresh Patil, Sung Chul Kim, Moo Yeon Lee “Review of the thermo-physical properties of a refrigeration system”Energies 2016,9,22,doi:10.3390/en901002214.Kamaldeep Singh, Sumeet Sharma,Gangacharyulu ISSn :m:2249-5762(online), IJRMET vol 3,Issue 2,May-Oct 2013.15.Majid Abdulwahab,S.M.Thahab, Asma H. Dhiaa Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Vol. 17 No. 2 (June2016) 1-616.K. S. Sanvordenker “R152a Vs R134a in Domestic Refrigerator-Freezer Advantage or Energy Penalty!”, International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference, Paper 16317.AmeySharad Majgaonkar 16th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference aT Purdue, July 11-14, 2016