Finally Barber points out that none is good.

the author gives us a view at the most important theoretical approaches to a
global consumer culture. According to Leslie Sklair (1991) the
“culture-ideology of consumerism” is based on the idea that the meaning of life
is based on the things that people possess. Within this concept, it should be
noted that the predominant role of people is the role of consumers rather than
citizens, reducing all political action to provide resources for consumption
(Goodman 2007: 344). Another theoretical approach is given by Nestor García Canclini,
who has an optimistic vision about the global consumer culture, says that
through consumption people give meaning to the world, communicating themselves through
the objects they use. He illustrates that by saying that just as the goods are
made from different parts, produced in other countries, likewise is our culture
(Ibid.:344). Goodman argues that the problem of seeing consumption as a
replacement for citizenship is that one cannot compare the free exercise of
democratic participation with the exercise of the consumer, in an area
dominated by market corporations (Ibid.:345). Contrary to this optimistic view,
Benjamin Barber (1995) offers a more negative view. He uses the term “McWorld”
to refer to homogenization, and “Jihad” to refer to heterogenization.  Barber points out that none is good. He adds
that the nation state, which is the only one that transports democracy, is
affected and loses strength by the “McWorld”; and that “Jihad” is characterized
by being “reactionary, exclusionary and authoritarian” (Goodman 2007:346). Barber also
mentions that contrary to what is usually believed, that these theories are
antithesis of the other, they are actually complementary since McWorld needs
Jihad to give a sense of identity and Jihad needs McWorld to use its technology
and improve its organization (Ibid.:346).

To conclude
Goodman says that is not possible to asseverate, from the arguments that he presented,
that there is a global consumer culture as more research is required. However,
there are theoretical arguments that lead us to think that if there is a global
culture, that culture is consumer culture (Ibid.:347).

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