For many years, the
conventional reasons have been assumed to be the cause of Germany’s downfall. While
we commemorate of the 70 years of the end of World War II, fresh evidence has
been uncovered by historians, claiming to be able to challenge or even overturn
the original reasons given for the defeat of the Axis powers.
The conventional reasons given for the defeat of Germany was
the entry of the USA in the war. The USA has had both direct and indirect
involvement in war, aiding the Allies since the start in September 1939,
indirectly via ‘Cash and Carry policy’, ‘Lend Lease act’ and others. The ‘Cash
and Carry policy’ allowed Britain and France to buy goods from USA. The ‘Lend
Lease Act’ was changed from the policy as Britain’s resources were depleting. With
the Act, the US had the authority to supply resources to any country whose
defence the President thought was important to the security of USA.
7 December 1941, Japan’s attack on the US fleet at Pearl Harbour encouraged the
US to declare war on Japan the next day. With the entry of USA in the war, USA
could openly aid the Allied Powers with the provision of manpower, resources,
and collaborated military strategies with the Allies, boosting the power of the
Allied Powers. The Axis powers were unable to match USA’s industrial
capabilities. Economic sanctions were imposed on the Axis and thus deprived the
Germany of essential resources, weakening them. This provided the Allies with
greater opportunities and success at bombing German cities, reducing
effectiveness of German U-boats until the point they had to be recalled. The Battle of Normandy resulted in Allied liberation of
Western Europe from Germany’s control. The Allies lead a deception campaign with
the intention to deceive the Germans about the actual invasion target before
the battle. By August 1944, northern France had been liberated, followed by the
defeat of the Axis.
However, the new evidence discovered suggest that Germany could have lost
more so due to miscalculations and weaknesses. Having victories early in the
war under his commands, Hitler considered himself a military genius. However,
when they were on the losing side of the war, his Generals were blamed for not
following his orders. For instance, despite his Generals’ advice, Hitler’s
launch of the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944 caused Germany to be at a
loss of manpower and resources. The Soviets launched a counterattack threatening
the Germans to retreat when the attack on Moscow was stalled in December 1941.
Hitler removed officers for not obeying his orders and made himself commander
in chief of the army planning out the strategies for his troops to follow.
Hitler made miscalculations by using resources and military funds
inappropriately. He wanted the most advanced, most powerful weapons during the
time to be created in order to have the military advantage. However, he
overestimated the supply of resources and many weapons could not be mass
produced to be effective in the war. An example of such a weapon is the 31.5
inch cannon, which only two were built but only one in use, translating into
being time-consuming, a waste of materials despite being very destructive.
Manpower was limited compared to the Allies, USA, as during that time women of
Germany were discouraged of working and so it was hard to keep up with the
demand, putting them at a disadvantage. In order to achieve the goal of