French Art Song Final

Romance
descended from the Troubadour songs; one of two =foundation for Modern Romance

Brunette
simple, unaffected songs (originally about a dark-haired girl; one of two=foundation of Modern Romance

Jean-Paul Martini
wrote the first example of proper romance, “Plasir d’amour” in 1784

plasir d’amour
the first example of proper romance, written by Jean-Paul Martini in 1784; for piano and the part was written out.

Johann Schwartzendorf
Jean-Paul Martini’s birth name

Romance
Popularity peaked in 1820-1850; simple, strophic piece with accompaniment; all about the melody

melodie
this term came to mean a type of song somewhere between the French Romance and the German Lied

Franz Schubert
this composer showed the possibilities in the piano relating to Melodie, and his songs were published two years before Hector Berlioz

Thomas Moore
this poet’s poems were set to French melodies by Hector Berlioz

Hector Berlioz
not the father of French melodie, but was the master composer of the French Romantic period; Les Nuits d’Ete

Les Nuits d’Ete
a 6 piece song cycle by Hector Berlioz

Charles Gounod
the father of French Melodie; he was a transition figure between the Romance and the Melodie; wrote art music that was more advanced in word-setting and harmony than that of his contemporaries

Biondina
a song cycle written in England by Charles Gounod

Georges Bizet
this composer had a dramatic personality in his compositions and he was known for his use of color

Feuilles d’Album
a collection of 6 songs by different poets, written by Georges Bizet

Parnassianism
this term describes a group of French poets who were concerned with a perfection of form, and an impersonal style

Prix de Rome
compositional prize from the Paris Conservatory, winners go to Rome for 2 years

Theophile Gautier
a French poet the Parnassians were influenced by

Symbolism
this term describes a type of poetry that was emotional, a psychological approach, and offered subtle suggestions.

Stephane Mallarme
his salon was the center of the Symbolism movement

Surrealism
this type of poetry was based around a stream of conciousness, they wanted to achieve a dream-like state through imagination.

Guillaume Apollinaire
a famous poet who wrote in the Surrealist style

Emmanuel Chabrier
a composer who wrote in a humorous, yet traditional style; influenced by Wagner

Emmanuel Chabrier
a composer who was good friends with Paul Verlaine, but never set any of his poems

Paul Verlaine
a well-known French poet who was part of the Parnassianism and Symbolism poetry movements

Six Melodies
a series of Melodies on animals subjects by Emmanuel Chabrier

About animals
Chabrier-Six Melodies
Ravel-Histoires naturelles
Poulenc-Les bestiare

Ernest Chausson
a composer who helped other musicians financially; influenced by Wagner

Poeme de l’amour et de la mer
a song cycle of 6 written by Ernest Chausson; it is orchestral accompaniment of three songs and three interludes

Henri Duparc
a composer whose reputation is built on 14 songs and signals the maturity of the French Melodie, away from Romance; influenced by Wagner

Gabriel Faure
the most important composer of the French Melodie; he composed most of his life (60 yrs.), output (100 songs); was not influenced by Wagner

Gabriel Faure
this composers most famous pupils include: Maurice Ravel and Nadia Boulanger

Gabriel Faure
this composer was known for his 1)use of church modes, 2) and his use of 16th c. polyphony

La Bonne Chanson
a song cycle written by Gabriel Faure

Claude Debussy
a composer who embraced the French Symbolism movement; wrote the opera Pelleas et Melisande

Nadezhda von Meck
a famous patron of Debussy, she introduced him to Russian music

Ravel and Debussy
two composers that visited the Universal Exposition in 1889; both were fascinated by Javanese gamelan and Russian music

Paul Verlaine
Faure, Hahn, and Debussy all set this famous Symbolist/Parnassian poet

Ariettes oubliees
a series of 6 songs written by Claude Debussy

Reynaldo Hahn
the composer who was best known for performing in the best salons in Paris; experienced a revival of his music

Reynaldo Hahn
the composer who was good friends with Marcel Proust and Sarah Bernhardt

Maurice Ravel
the composer who was best known for his harmonizations of folksongs; his music shows Debussy’s influence as well; often orchestrated other people’s works

Les Six
Ravel was alienated from this group who reacted against Wagner and impressionism in music.

Maurice Ravel
Igor Stravinsky described this composer as “Swiss watchmaker”

Stephane Mallarme
Ravel considered this poet to be France’s greatest poet

Histoires naturelles
5 little vignettes depicting animals by Ravel

Francis Poulenc
this composer was considered the last great composer of the French Melodie

Le bestiaire
Poulenc’s first song cycle in 1918

Groupe des Six
this group of composers strived to be French; they all wrote vocal music (not in the same style) and were united by friendship

Charles Koechlin
Poulenc studied with this man, after many of years of never studying composition

Pierre Bernac
Poulenc formed a duo with this man, one of the greatest interpreters of French song.

Guillaume Apollinaire
a poet that Poulenc used, who was a surrealist and supporter of cubism

Francis Poulenc
this composer rarely composed the beginning of the song first.

Marie-Blanche Vasnier
a coloratura soprano that Claude Debussy fell in love with and dedicated 23 songs to.

Les Apaches
(The Ruffians) a group that Ravel became apart of-musicians, writers and artists