Greek Literature

arete
A notion of excellence bound up with the notion of fulfillment of purpose or function; the act of living up to one’s full potential

Plato
ancient Athenian philosopher

Aristotle
one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers

Pericles
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen’s political and cultural supremacy in Greece

Minoans
earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C.

Classical period
Persian Wars; The Golden Age; The Leadership of Pericles advances in society and culture

lyric poetry
a type of emotional songlike poetry, distinguished from dramatic and narrative poetry

drama
successor to the outburst of lyric poetry

Thespis
Legendary founder of Greek drama—created first actor (speaker separate from chorus)

Aeschylus
( 527-456 B.C)first known writer of tragedies, wrote 90 in all but only 7 have survived; He wrote the only recorded trilogy known during his time.

Sophocles
Wrote the Oedipus cycle, tradgedian

Euripides
tradgedian of Ancient Greece and psycholoist who viewed the conduct of man and the role of the gods with ske

Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)

Aphrodite
goddess of love and beauty and daughter of Zeus in ancient mythology

Apollo
god of poetry, music, prophecy, medicine, and archery

Ares
(Greek mythology) Greek god of war

Athena
(Greek mythology) goddess of wisdom and useful arts and prudent warfare

Hephaestus
(Greek mythology) the lame god of fire and metal-working in ancient mythology

Hera
queen of gods and of the heavens; goddess of women, marriage, and motherhood

Hermes
Messenger of the Gods; god of commerce, speed, thieves, and trade

Poseidon
(Greek mythology) the god of the sea and earthquakes in ancient mythology

Zeus
king of gods and ruler of Mount Olympus; god of the sky, thunder, and justice

Archilochus
Greek poet, lived in exile for most of his life, wrote and encouraged Courage and Moderation

Callinus
citizen of Ephesus in Asia Minor

A Call to Arms
poem written by Archilochus, urging his fellow citizens to resist the barbarian hordes
A Call to Arms

Semonides
poet who lived during 7th century BC, early writer of satire

Alcaeus
Greek lyric poet of Lesbos

Sappho
called “the tenth muse” by Plato, form island of Lesbos, her poems mostly deal with personal relationships

Simonides
(556 bc-468 BC)most versatile of greek lyric poets

Pindar
greek poet known for choral lyrics, weaves mytholoical stories into poems

Theocritus
considered greatest of Alexandrain poets, originated pastoral poetry

epigram
comes from term meaning “inscription” used by Greeks to refer to an brief poem

Herodotus
called “father of history” by Cicero, wrote History of the Persian Wars and about Thermopylae

Thucydides
exiled from Athens, objective critic of his time, wrote a history (7 books completed); ex Funeral Oration of Pericles

Plato
sought solutions to the problems of society, pupil of Socrates, wrote The Apology, The Phaedo

Sophocles
prominent, patriotic citizen of Athens, ideal Athenian citizen, introduced the 3rd actor, wrote antigone