Haematoxylin is a basic dye with a purplish colour. It gives blue stains to an acidic or basophilic structure such as nucleus, ribosome and rough endoplasmic reticulum.
In nucleus, it specifically stains the chromatin which allows the pattern to be observed clearly 3. Eosin is an acidic dye with a reddish or pink colour. It stains basic or acidophilic structure such as cytoplasm and cell wall pink.
Eosin can strongly be absorbed by red blood cell and gives a bright pink colour. H&E staining displays underlying tissue morphology which is used to diagnose diseases on a cellular level 2. Papanicolaou staining includes both acidic and basic dyes 4. It is used to examine the cell samples from various bodily secretions and frequently used to stain Pap smear specimens. Papanicolaou stains give multiple colour of stains as it contains Hematoxylin, Orange Green 6, Eosin Y and Light green SF. Hematoxylin stains nuclues blue, Orange Green 6 stains matured and keratinised cell, Eosin Y stains red blood cell, cytoplasm of mature squamous cells, cilia and nucleoli pink and lastly, Light green SF stains cytoplasm of squamous cells and columnar cells blue 4. Romanowsky stains is used in staining of blood films, bone marrow tests and cytological studies. It consists of azure B and eosin Y which gives various shades of stains that is due to its sensitivity towards the pH changes.
Azure B binds to anionic parts of the cell while and eosin Y will binds to the cationic parts. In order to differentiate inflammation and neoplasia, Romanowsky stains can be used 1. Giemsa stains is used to identify mast cell, cytoplasmic morphology of blood cells and plasmodium parasites. It contains methylene blue, eosin and azure B.
This stain often used in histopathological diagnosis such as malaria and any other parasites and also used in cytogenesis. Specifically, it is used for the phosphate group in DNA. It attached to the region with high amounts of adrenaline-thymine bonding in DNA. This stains also used to stain bone marrow specimens, trophozoite trichomonas vaginalis and peripheral blood smears 6.
Wright stains is a stain used in histological diagnosis which helps to differentiate the type of blood cell. Malaria parasites can also be detected by this stain 7. It is composed of eosin and azure dyes. Molecules that are acidic is attracted to the azure dyes while Eosin acts as a fixative due to its high affinity towards basic components. In order to stain the peripheral blood smears, urine sample and bone marrow sample which can be obtained through bone marrow aspiration, Wright stains might be helpful.
It is also often used for suspected lymphomas and cerebrospinal fluid. Leishman stains is used to identify and differentiate types of leukocytes, trypanosomas and also malaria parasites. However, this stain has less sensitivity towards malaria parasites. It provides better visualization of the nuclear chromatin pattern of cells as it gives better contrast of neutrophil granules and nucleus 5. References: 1.
515491?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=ibih202. http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/intro/tissprep.htm 3.http://nsh.org/sites/default/files/Guidelines_For_Hematoxylin_and_Eosin_Staining.pdf4.http://laboratoryinfo.com/papanicolaou-pap-staining-principle-procedure-interpretation/5.https://martinslibrary.blogspot.com/2013/12/microbiology-staining-romanowsky.html6.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4320490/7.https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Wright%27s+stain