Hilv Eng9 poetry Griggs

“A Valentine for Ernest Mann”
-Poet: Naomi Shihab Nye-Summary: Poems aren’t easy or straight-forward; you have to search for hidden meaning in a poem; beauty is within a poem but you have to search for it and look from a different perspective-Personification: poems hide in our shoes-Metaphor: poems are shadows-Skunk represents beauty in eye of the beholder.

-Theme: You can find beauty in anything.

“Incident in a Rose Garden”
-Poet: Donald Justice-Summary: A gardener met death in the garden so he ran to his master to tell him. The master tells death to get off his property. Death tells the master that it had come for the master.

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-Personification: Death is talking like a person would-Simile: “Thin as a scythe he stood there.”-Theme: Death can happen at any time. Death does not have to be feared

“The Road Not Taken”
-Poet: Robert Frost-Summary: The narrator comes to a spot on a path that divides into the 2 paths, going 2 separate ways. He chooses the one that hasn’t been traveled on and says that made all the difference.-uses rhyming-Symbol: road is the symbol for choices-Theme: Choosing to do what’s right for you, not what everyone else is doing, will be the best for you.

-Poet: Julio Noboa Polanco-Summary: The narrator says she’d rather be like a weed (ugly/not appealing to others) and get to have adventure and see the world than to be like a flower and have to stay planted in a pot. She’d rather be unseen than admired by others.

She’d rather be alone and free.-Parallelism: repeats “I’d rather be…

“-Theme: It’s better to make choices that help you achieve your fullest potential and be seen as different or odd than to do what’s popular/common and miss-out on opportunities.

“The Seven Ages of Man”
-Poet: Shakespeare-Summary: Everyone goes through different stages in life: infant, schoolboy, lover, soldier, justice, slippered pantaloon, & second childishness.-Parallelism: repeats “Then..

.”-Metaphor: “All the world’s a stage” “All the men and women are merely players.”-Theme: Every human being has the common experience of growing up and growing old.

“O Me! O Life!”
-Poet: Walt Whitman-Summary: There are so many negative, tragic, and wasteful things in life and we make so many mistakes and often feel what we do is useless, but we are all here because we all have something to contribute.-Symbol: Verse represents contribution in life.

-Theme: Every human being has something to contribute in this life.

-Poet: Paul Laurence Dunbar-Summary: The narrator has sympathy for a bird stuck in a cage that has no freedom and injures itself trying to escape.-Parallelism: “I know why/what the caged bird…”-Symbol: bird represents the poet; cage represents discrimination; nature images represent freedoms-Theme: Everyone wants freedom.

“Caged Bird”
-Poet: Maya Angelou-Summary: A bird that’s free gets to explore and enjoy life, but a bird that’s in a cage doesn’t get opportunities, is mad, and sings about having freedom -Rhyme at ends of lines-Theme: Freedom brings opportunities and lack of freedom causes anger and bitterness.

-Poet: Alice Walker-Summary: It talks about African-American women in earlier generations who worked hard with housekeeping chores. They led the younger generation in a battle for freedom so that African-Americans could have the opportunity to get an education that earlier generations never had the chance to get.

-Metaphor: the women were compared to generals fighting for freedom-Theme: African-American women have played a part in earning the freedoms and opportunities that African-Americans have today.

“Woman Work”
-Poet: Maya Angelou-Summary: It talks about a woman who has many chores to do, fields to work in, children to take care of, and a hut of her own to care for. She asks the rain and wind to cool her off and refresh her. She connects with nature and talks about how it belongs to her since she doesn’t have many material possessions of her own.-Catalog poem-Theme: We can find rejuvenation through nature and escape from our daily responsibilities through nature.

-Poet: Naomi Shihab Nye-Summary: It talks about a woman who farmed, did laundry, cooked, did household chore, and took care of household mail. She then says that her daily chores help her to connect to the world.-Catalog poem-Theme: Our daily responsibilities help us to contribute to and connect with others and the world.

-Poet: William Stafford-Summary: A fifteen-year-old boy find a wrecked motorcycle. He imagines himself riding it and speeding down the road. He sees its owner and helps him back to the motorcycle, and the cyclists rides off on the motorcycle.-Refrain: “I was fifteen.

“-Theme: When we’re young certain things seem big and exciting but no longer seem that way once we’re older.

“The Funeral”
-Poet: Gordon Parks-Summary: A man who returned home after many years to attend his father’s funeral. He notices that the road and creek by his house look much smaller. However, his father, though dead, seems as big as always in his coffin.

-Hyperbole: 100 men carrying his father’s coffin so it shows that the author admires his father, even as an adult-Theme: Your childhood perception doesn’t always match adult realities.

1. Alliteration
– repetition of initial consonant sounds in a line of poetry (ex. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers)



-repetition of vowel sounds in a line of poetry (ex. young love)

3. Consonance
– repetition of consonant sounds in the middle or ends of words in a line of poetry (ex. like the duck quacked)



– two consecutive rhyming lines (ex. Parting is such sweet sorrow/ That I shall say goodnight till it be morrow)

5. Meter
– pattern of syllables in poetry

6. Onomatopoeia
– words that mean as they sound (ex. buzz, crash)

7. Parallelism
– repetition of words, phrase, or sentences that have the same grammatical structure (ex.

It was the best of times; it was the worst of times)

8. Refrain
– repeated lines or group of lines (ex. the chorus of a song)



End – at the end of linesInternal – within a lineApproximate – intended to rhyme, but doesn’t exactly

10. Rhyme Scheme
– pattern of end rhymes (ex. ABCB)

11. Rhythm
– musical quality produced by meter and repetition

12. Allusion
– reference to another work of literature (ex.

O. Henry refers to wise men)

13. Connotation
– implied meaning


Figurative Language

– not literal, phrase that describes one thing in terms of another (ex. Simile, metaphor, personification)

15. Hyperbole
– obvious exaggeration

16. Imagery
– language that appeals to the senses

17. Metaphor
– comparison not using “like” or “as”



– giving human traits to something not human

19. Pun
– play on words (ex. punch line – “receding hare/hair line”)

20. Simile
– comparison using “like” or “as”

21. Symbol
-something that stands for something greater

22. Theme
– central message

23. Tone
– attitude of writer



– 4-line stanzas

25. Stanza
– like a paragraph in poetry

26. Speaker
– voice talking to us in a poem (sometimes the poet)

Free Verse
– poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme

Blank Verse
– unrhymed iambic pentameter (10 syllable lines with stressed/unstressed pairs)

– 3 line poem, with 5, 7, 5 syllabication

– 5 line poem, with 2, 4, 6, 8, 2 syllabication

– song that tells a story

– 14 line poem written in iambic pentameter (ex. Shakespearean sonnet – three four-line stanzas, followed by couplet, abab cdcd efef gg)

– tells a story

– poem intended to express feelings

– poem intended to appeal to senses

– extended metaphor (ex.


– long story telling great deeds of a hero (ex. Odyssey)

– mournful poem, typically lamenting the dead

– 5 line poem, usually humorous, follows aabba rhyme scheme, with set meter

– short text honoring deceased, often found on grave stone

Concrete poetry
– connection between poem’s layout and meaning

Dramatic poetry
– poem in which character/s speak