Human Renaissance chapter 17 test

Humanism
-Any system or mode of thought or action in which human interests, values, and dignity predominate.
-A devotion on study of humanities

Classical Humanism
The movement to recover and revive Greco Roman culture “rebirth”

Humanist
a person having a strong interest in or concern for human welfare, values, and dignity.
a classical scholar.

Studia Humanitatis
a course of classical studies that, in the early 15th century, consisted of grammar, poetry, rhetoric, history, and moral philosophy

Medici family
also known as the House of Medici, first attained wealth and political power in Florence in the 13th century through its success in commerce and banking. Beginning in 1434 with the rise to power of Cosimo de’ Medici (or Cosimo the Elder), the family’s support of the arts and humanities made Florence into the cradle of the Renaissance, a cultural flowering rivaled only by that of ancient Greece. The Medicis produced four popes (Leo X, Clement VII, Pius IV and Leon XI), and their genes have been mixed into many of Europe’s royal families. The last Medici ruler died without a male heir in 1737, ending the family dynasty after almost three centuries.

Cosimo De Medici
He represented the Medici bank, managed the papacy’s finances and became the wealthiest man of his time. Despite never holding office, he controlled Florence via his wealth and was the start of a dynasty that held power for centures. Cosimo was an important patron of Renaisance art. He died in 1464.

Lorenzo De Medici
Lorenzo de’ Medici ruled Florence with his brother Giuliano from 1469 to 1478. After the latter’s assassination, the crowd stood by the Medici and tore the assassins limb from limb. Lorenzo was considered the Wise, “the needle on the Italian scales,” and ruled from 1478 to 1492. Lorenzo’s patronage of the arts was renowned, and those under his protection included Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci.

Petrarch
Petrarch was born Francesco Petrarca on July 20, 1304, in Arezzo, Tuscany. He was a devoted classical scholar who is considered the “Father of Humanism,” a philosophy that helped spark the Renaissance. Petrarch’s writing includes well-known odes to Laura, his idealized love. His writing was also used to shape the modern Italian language. He died at age 69 on July 18 or 19, 1374, in Arquà, Carrara.

Sonnet
is a poetic form which originated in Italy; Giacomo Da Lentini is credited with its invention. The term sonnet is derived from the Italian word sonetto (from Old Provençal sonet a little poem, from son song, from Latin sonus a sound

Ficino
Marsilio Ficino was a Florentine philosopher, translator, and commentator, largely responsible for the revival of Plato and Platonism in the Renaissance. He has been widely recognized by historians of philosophy for his defense of the immortality of the soul, as well as for his translations of Plato, Plotinus, and the Hermetic corpus from Greek to Latin. Ficino is considered the most important advocate of Platonism in the Renaissance, and his philosophical writings and translations are thought to have made a significant contribution to the development of early modern philosophies.

The Platonic Theology is Ficino’s most original and systematic philosophical treatise

Picco della Mirondaola
Pico was born on February 24, 1463, to a noble Italian family, the counts of Mirandola and Concordia near Modena in the Emilia-Romagna north of Tuscany. At the age of fourteen he left for Bologna, intending briefly to study canon law, but within two years he moved to Ferrara and shortly afterward to Padua, where he met one of his most important teachers, Elia del Medigo, a Jew and an Averroist Aristotelian. By the time he left Padua in 1482, he had also felt the attraction of the Platonism being revived by Marsilio Ficino, and by 1484 he was corresponding with Angelo Poliziano and Lorenzo de’Medici about poetry.

Alberti
Italian humanist, architect, and principal initiator of Renaissance art theory. In his personality, works, and breadth of learning, he is considered the prototype of the Renaissance “universal man.”

Virtu
-knowledge of or expertise in the fine arts.

-the good qualities inherent in a person or thing.

Castiglione
alian humanist, diplomat and courtier, famous for his Il Libro del Cortegiano (1528, The Book of the Courtier), which was translated into many languages and made Castiglione the arbiter of aristocratic manners during the Renaissance. Castiglione demanded, that one should preserve one’s composure and self-control under all circumstances and behave in company with an unaffected nonchalance and effortless dignity. Castiglione wrote also Italian and Latin poems, and many letters illustrating political and literary history. Among his friends was the famous painter Raphael, who made a portrait of Castiglione in 1514-15.

L’uomo universale
Renaissance man, also called Universal Man, Italian Uomo Universale, an ideal that developed in Renaissance Italy from the notion expressed by one of its most accomplished representatives, Leon Battista Alberti (1404-72), that “a man can do all things if he will.”

Sprezzatura
studied carelessness, especially as a characteristic quality or style of art or literature.

Machiavelli
Born on May 3, 1469, in Florence, Italy, Niccolò Machiavelli was a diplomat for 14 years in Italy’s Florentine Republic during the Medici family’s exile. When the Medici family returned to power in 1512, Machiavelli was dismissed and briefly jailed. He then wrote The Prince, a handbook for politicians on the use of ruthless, self-serving cunning, inspiring the term “Machiavellian” and establishing Machiavelli as the “father of modern political theory.” He also wrote several poems and plays. He died on June 21, 1527, in Florence, Italy.

Lavinia Fontana
Lavinia Fontana was an Italian painter. She is regarded as the first woman artist, working within the same sphere as her male counterparts, outside a court or convent.

Battista Sforza