Humans need jobs in order to meet the costs of survival and material need in life. According to Dictionary.com (2016), a job is when you are assigned to a work as part of your occupation and you are paid to do it. People need to be employed in order to have control over their own life and start being financially independent to carry survival expenses alone. People should choose a job relevant to the mastery and skills they possess but as much as a person want a job of his/her own choice, many are still unsuccessful in doing so. Various complexes within one’s self or the family have huge impact that more than most of the time, pushes individuals to accept the jobs at reach rather than getting one that suits them according to their knowledge and skills. Yet, those who are suitable to the jobs they are currently in can also experience dissatisfaction. The lack job satisfaction can and will lead to poor work production and presentation.
Job performance refers to the attitude that are expected in the business goals and the purpose under control of individual employees (Campbell et al., 1993). It assesses whether a person executes a job well. Performance of employees is influenced by various components at work place and it shows the adequacy of employee’s particular activities that contribute to achieve organizational goals. Job satisfaction is referred to the the feeling of pleasure and achievement that you experience in your job when you know that your work is worth doing (English dictionary, 2017).
“The contentment (or lack of it) arising out of interplay of employee’s positive and negative feelings affects their job performance.” (dictionary.com)Factors for satisfaction include motivation, responsibility, recognition, achievement, opportunities for growth, and advancement. Motivation is defined as a “key determinant” of job presentation and a defective drive will be costly in terms of excessive staff turnover, higher expenses, negative morale and increased use of management’s time (Jobber, 1994). In an association where workers are esteemed for their insight, capabilities and aptitudes, the best employee motivation efforts concentrate on what representatives regard to be important. Again in 1994, he stated that “management must know what exactly stimulates their staff so resources are not misallocated and dissatisfaction develops among employees.” The components of occupation, for example, of any association that can compel the business organizations to adjust inventive systems with the goal that the organization can expand worker efficiency consistently. As Green (2000) has described motivation to be proactive in the sense of; in dealing with employees who are high performers, motivation is essential, otherwise their performance will decline or they will simply leave the job.
It can be observed that a mental framework has a direct impact to every individual performance, which can affect an organization as a whole. While dealing with low performers, motivation is a prerequisite; otherwise these employees will drag results down, bring down efficiency and positively would not leave the organization, as they will have no place else to go. The relationship between employee motivation and job performance has been studied in the past but high correlations between the two were not established (Vroom, 1964). However, later research concluded that employee motivation and job performance are indeed positively correlated (Petty et al., 1984).
Similarly, that is agreed that employee motivation can be separated in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Staw, 1976). Staw argues that one of the first attempts to make that distinction was in Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (1959). Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory was made by Frederick Herzberg. He stated that there are two factors that gives motivation in every employee. The first one is the hygiene factors are classified as extrinsic (or independent of the work itself), and are linked to things such as compensation, job security, organizational politics, working conditions, quality of leadership, and relationships between supervisors, subordinates, and peers.
Nelson and Quick (2003) contend that a job with high motivation and hygiene factors leads to high performance and few complaints among employees. The second factor is motivators or satisfiers. These are linked to employee motivation and arise from intrinsic, or dependent, conditions of the job itself. It is very significant to stimulate employees as it can increase the job performance of an employee.The researchers chose this research topic because it is one of the most distinguished and most sought after, and it deserves scrutiny as developments happen through years. This study is a reconsideration the state of the literature relating to the relationship between factors that affect job performance. This paper is an academic research which identifies the different factors that affect job performance. It is important to understand that how the employee performance or employee’s job behavior of assisting departments, management levels, and executive leaders impact the organizational goals in either a positive or negative way.
It also states that employees who have a strong work ethic that improves their jobs in high priority. Many employers believe that employee productivity is the sole responsibility of the employee because employees that are productive in their jobs was a big help to the company growth. Organizations need to understand the factors that affect employees’ performance because such insight will help them make decisions that will inculcate improved performance from the employees and to an extension the overall performance of the organization (Mwangi, 2012).
To summarize, performance means both behavior and result. Behavior emanates from the performer and transforms performance from abstraction into action. Not just a means to an end, the behavior is also an outcome in itself, the product of mental and physical effort applied to the task, which can be judged apart from the result (Armstrong, 2006). Good job performance can lead into the success of a company consideration in different factors that affect job performance must be applied in every businesses. People are an organization’s greatest assets: individuals and organizations have learned about the importance of the role of people in an organization, and how the success of an organization depends on its people (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1995).
Extensive research provides greater understanding behind the significant variation in job performance among employees. Factors such as gender (Beck, Behr, & Güttler, 2009), age (Ng & Feldman, 2008), salary (Ittner, Larcker, & Pizzini, 2007), stress (Hourani, Williams, & Kress, 2006), motivation and job satisfaction (Wang, 2011) training and development (Sultana, 2013), and organizational culture (Alvesson, 2012) have been studied to determine the relationship of these variables to job performance.