Identifyand review theories and models from various disciplinary backgrounds thatexplain or inform interactions within an organisationIntroductionMotivation is a person’s inner strength and desirewhich initiates certain behaviour and directs a person to accomplish a task,which goes along with the energy they must work towards the outcome. (Burns,2017) I will be discussing and analysing each of the theories which are used,and how they are implemented in a multicultural business environment within theUnited Kingdom.There are three main theories which can be implementedwithin a workplace. Satisfaction Theories are portrayed as ‘a worker who issatisfied with the work they’re doing, also the environment in which they areworking in, they tend to be a lot more productive with the work they complete.Incentive Theories are commonly described as ‘certain individuals who are moreproductive and work a lot harder are often rewarded’. Finally, IntrinsicTheories are mainly defined as ‘an employee will work at their greatest if theyare given a job which is valuable, and have the freedom to work on it’. The rewardtends to come from when the employee is satisfied by the work that havecompleted. (Burns, 2017)When employers search for employees, they examine ifthey require minimal supervision and can work independently, in a wellorganised and time effective method.
Supervisors who hire the staff which areself-motivated, benefit from this a lot, as they require minimum direction andcan work on a task independently. Once the staff recognises what they must do tocomplete the task, they can complete it without the help of their colleagues.(Burns, 2017)SatisfactionTheories:A satisfied worker is usually a lot harder working, andthey tend to stay within the same organisation for most of their career and isgenerally healthier within a mental aspect.
If an employer focuses on the workconditions of its employees, this will decrease absenteeism also staffturnover, however this doesn’t affect the productivity of an individual worker.(Burns, 2017) This theorycan be implemented within a business is to motivate the workers, alongside thisthe employer should prioritise if the employees feel like they are receivingthe right support and gratitude from them. The employee should be receiving regular feedback,and have the knowledge of how they can advance within the organisation. (5Psychological Theories of Motivation to Increase Productivity, 2017)Herzberg’sTwo Factor Theory:Herzberg’sTwo-factor Theory is the idea that factors or situations which motivate orsatisfy people who work aren’t the same as the factors which dissatisfy peoplewho work. Herzberg had discovered that when people were excelling in theirwork, and were praised for the work they were doing, as they were well skilledin that specific field, that is recognised as the whole feel good aspects ofthe job.
mmu.ac.uk,2017) When people work in an environmentwhich offers support, and allows them to have the opportunity to beself-directive, the employees will be encouraged by the work they do and taskswhich they achieve, this will allow them to increase their overall self-esteem.(The Balance, 2017)Motivators are factors which leadto being satisfied and having a positive attitude towards their job. Thesefactors are within the work which they complete which satisfies certainemployee’s needs, also self-actualisation. Motivators can be things such asrecognition of achievement, work which is challenging, higher responsibilitywithin their job, and an opportunity to grow and develop within theorganisation.
If these factors are set, it can allow employees to become a lotmore highly motivated, and this will then decrease the amount ofdissatisfaction when they’re absent.Hygiene factors are set to removehealth hazards from the working environment. It is recognised as beingpreventive.
Wren had stated, “Hygiene factors act in a manner analogues to theprinciples of medical hygiene. Hygiene operates to remove health hazards fromthe environment of man.”The Hygiene factors consist of, thepolicies that have been set by the organisation, supervision of the employees,and the security, which is set within the organisation.
When these are not inplace, or start to fall apart below the expected level of the employee, thiscan then lead to job dissatisfaction. This means that it is vital to includethese, and reach a certain level of satisfaction, which means that it should beregularly updated. Other methods in which they canimplement to prevent job dissatisfaction is to ensure the employees are beingtreated equally and fair, this includes things such as fair pay, having thebest working conditions possible for the employees, alongside this, theemployer should listen and support its employees by forming a connection withthem, so they feel a lot more comfortable around the other employees, includingthe employer themselves. (5 Psychological Theories of Motivation to IncreaseProductivity, 2017)The way Herzberg’s theory can beimplemented in the United Kingdom’s modern multicultural business environmentis by managers identifying the preferred way in which workers like to be distinguished,also the different values which they all have, according to the culturalbackground which they come from. An example of this is in cultures whereemployees are more likely to be individualistic such as the UK or US, there maybe recognition prizes such as employee of the month will work well with theemployees, as their satisfaction and motivation levels will increase as theyare praised for the work in which they have completed.
However, this coulddiffer to employees who come from an Asian background, as this may be moredemotivating instead of increasing motivation, as within Asian cultures,employees preferred to be recognised for the group work which they do, andworking hard within a team. Being recognised for your work as an individual mayseem uncomfortable and could end up affecting the overall satisfaction levelsas a team. (Maclachlan, 2016)Incentive Theories:Anincentive theory is when a certain individual uses motivators such as money,status, higher responsibility within their workplace, to increase the amount ofeffort which they implement within their work. (Burns, 2017) These incentivesare used as a way of encouraging the employee to invest their time and effortinto the tasks they complete.
Thereare multiple aspects on the influence of incentive factors, e.g. if rewards areoffered to the employees on a frequent basis, this can have an impact on howmotivated the employee is. The less amount of time in which they can obtainthese rewards, the more motivated the employees will be, moreover, if rewardsare given more occasionally, this could lead to the employees having anelevated level of motivation for a longer duration. Theory X and Theory Y:Thistheory explains that there are two different methods on how managers can be,and how they work with their employees.DouglasMcGregor had labelled Theory X as the ‘conventional view’ of management tasks.His view of Theory X is that it is the employer’s duty to control and organisehow employees behave, or else this could lead to the employees becoming a lotmore laid back. He also stated that these employees lack determination, anddon’t enjoy working, so they prefer other people leading them.
Theory Yhas been based on ‘more adequate assumption about human nature’ This method isexplained as the manager not just directing its employees, but regulatingresources, so the organisation can reach its targets. The manager must providethe employees with the opportunity to develop their skills, this can be bygiving them certain responsibilities to partake, and allowing them to beindependent and think of problem solving methods themselves. (Gannon, D. , A. 2013)They waya Theory X manager will affect a multicultural business environment is that,employers may come from diverse backgrounds and be brought up in separate ways,so this may affect they respond to the way the managers viewpoints on employeesand how they act towards the employees, e.
g. the manager could act with anaggressive approach which the employee may find uncomfortable. The waya Theory Y manager may have an affect on this is by having a more lenientapproach towards the employees. They will ensure that the employees are a lotmore comfortable when working and the environment they work in by allowing themto work in groups and being a lot more collaborative with each other. This canallow employee satisfaction, and can also improve the productivity levels whichthe produce.
Intrinsic Theories Intrinsictheory is a type of motivation which makes you want to achieve certain tasks,and do activities which you enjoy. When a person is motivated intrinsically,the activities which they do is, so they find pleasure from it, or because theywant to be challenged and succeed in it, instead of doing an activity becauseof the rewards which they may retrieve or if they felt pressurised into doingthat certain activity. (Ryan and Deci,2000)Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’shierarchy of needs is a theory which consists of 5 steps of the necessitieswhich humans need in life. This is usually portrayed in a pyramid which showsthe lowest is the absolute necessary need of humans, and as it goes up a tier,this shows the needs which can be built upon throughout human life.The fivestages to the hierarchy of needs are physiological, safety, belonging, esteem,and self-actualisation. The first four levels are mostly recognised as beingthe deficiency needs, and the highest level is recognised as being needs.
Oncethe first level is reached, then the next tier should be what we focus on asour motivation. This should carry on until we reach the highest tier. (McLeod,S. A. 2017)The wayan employer can fulfil physiological needs to its employees is by implementingthings such as regular breaks, and holidays, for the employees to get rest, andrestore their energy. Another need is a salary which will allow the employeesto have a living off, e.
g. food, clothing, rent.For thesecurity needs, the employers should ensure that the workplace is safe,alongside the equipment they use. There should also be storage space for eachemployee, e.g. lockers.Thesocial needs should mainly consist of going group work with the employees, asthis will help improve their teamwork skills, also allow the employees to gainconfidence, and improve the overall communication skills.
The waythe esteem tier can be implemented within a workplace is by including rewardsfor the employees, e.g. bonus pay checks, discount vouchers, employee of themonth, etc. Anothermethod which is related to this theory, which can be implemented in the UnitedKingdom’s modern multicultural business environment is by including spaces orrooms for employees to pray as there may be workers who have religious beliefs.An example of this is at most NHS Hospitals; they include prayer rooms such asa mosque as well as a church, where employees can pray.
Employeeswith different religious beliefs should be allowed to practice their religion,e.g. employees who have of Sikh faith should be allowed to wear a turban whilstworking, or employees of Muslim faith being able to wear a headscarf. Thisshould be implemented by the employers to ensure that there is nodiscrimination against the employee which takes place. (Religionor belief in the workplace, 2013)Otherimplementations which is related to religion and belief is having time off fromwork for religious holidays, such as Christmas and Eid. (Religion or belief inthe workplace, 2013)Finally,the self-actualisation need can be applied by the employer by ensuring theemployees recognise that they can develop and become better in their field.
This also goes alongside identifying when an employee has done well in acertain task, and ensuring they realise that they’ve done well. (Burns, 2017)Conclusion In conclusionI feel that Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory will work well within an organisation.If motivators are implemented, then it will allow the employees to increasetheir skillset, as they will have a lot more challenging work to complete,alongside this they will have more responsibility within the workplace. This willincrease their satisfaction levels. The hygiene factors are key for anyorganisation, as this is what prevents the overall job dissatisfaction. Factorssuch as the salary, working conditions, policies, and security are necessaryfor any organisation for the employees to feel comfortable. Theory X won’t workas well as Theory Y, as this is a more aggressive approach to treating staff,and could lead to employees feeling uncomfortable whilst working. Theory Y is abetter approach to treating employees, and should be implemented.
Finally,Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is essential within a workplace, as people ofdifferent religions may require certain needs, such as prayer rooms, or clothingwhich they might need to wear, so once this is implemented, it will improve theoverall satisfaction levels of employees, as they will find it more comfortableto be at the workplace. I would implement the two-factor theory, and have moreof a Theory Y mindset towards a business as I find that this will be best whenmanaging employees.