Identify and analysing each of the theories which

Identify
and review theories and models from various disciplinary backgrounds that
explain or inform interactions within an organisation

Introduction

Motivation is a person’s inner strength and desire
which initiates certain behaviour and directs a person to accomplish a task,
which goes along with the energy they must work towards the outcome. (Burns,
2017) I will be discussing and analysing each of the theories which are used,
and how they are implemented in a multicultural business environment within the
United Kingdom.

There are three main theories which can be implemented
within a workplace. Satisfaction Theories are portrayed as ‘a worker who is
satisfied with the work they’re doing, also the environment in which they are
working in, they tend to be a lot more productive with the work they complete.
Incentive Theories are commonly described as ‘certain individuals who are more
productive and work a lot harder are often rewarded’. Finally, Intrinsic
Theories are mainly defined as ‘an employee will work at their greatest if they
are given a job which is valuable, and have the freedom to work on it’. The reward
tends to come from when the employee is satisfied by the work that have
completed. (Burns, 2017)

When employers search for employees, they examine if
they require minimal supervision and can work independently, in a well
organised and time effective method. Supervisors who hire the staff which are
self-motivated, benefit from this a lot, as they require minimum direction and
can work on a task independently. Once the staff recognises what they must do to
complete the task, they can complete it without the help of their colleagues.
(Burns, 2017)

Satisfaction
Theories:

A satisfied worker is usually a lot harder working, and
they tend to stay within the same organisation for most of their career and is
generally healthier within a mental aspect. If an employer focuses on the work
conditions of its employees, this will decrease absenteeism also staff
turnover, however this doesn’t affect the productivity of an individual worker.
(Burns, 2017)

 This theory
can be implemented within a business is to motivate the workers, alongside this
the employer should prioritise if the employees feel like they are receiving
the right support and gratitude from them.

The employee should be receiving regular feedback,
and have the knowledge of how they can advance within the organisation. (5
Psychological Theories of Motivation to Increase Productivity, 2017)

Herzberg’s
Two Factor Theory:

Herzberg’s
Two-factor Theory is the idea that factors or situations which motivate or
satisfy people who work aren’t the same as the factors which dissatisfy people
who work. Herzberg had discovered that when people were excelling in their
work, and were praised for the work they were doing, as they were well skilled
in that specific field, that is recognised as the whole feel good aspects of
the job. (Emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.mmu.ac.uk,
2017)  

When people work in an environment
which offers support, and allows them to have the opportunity to be
self-directive, the employees will be encouraged by the work they do and tasks
which they achieve, this will allow them to increase their overall self-esteem.
(The Balance, 2017)

Motivators are factors which lead
to being satisfied and having a positive attitude towards their job. These
factors are within the work which they complete which satisfies certain
employee’s needs, also self-actualisation. Motivators can be things such as
recognition of achievement, work which is challenging, higher responsibility
within their job, and an opportunity to grow and develop within the
organisation. If these factors are set, it can allow employees to become a lot
more highly motivated, and this will then decrease the amount of
dissatisfaction when they’re absent.

Hygiene factors are set to remove
health hazards from the working environment. It is recognised as being
preventive. Wren had stated, “Hygiene factors act in a manner analogues to the
principles of medical hygiene. Hygiene operates to remove health hazards from
the environment of man.”

The Hygiene factors consist of, the
policies that have been set by the organisation, supervision of the employees,
and the security, which is set within the organisation. When these are not in
place, or start to fall apart below the expected level of the employee, this
can then lead to job dissatisfaction. This means that it is vital to include
these, and reach a certain level of satisfaction, which means that it should be
regularly updated.

Other methods in which they can
implement to prevent job dissatisfaction is to ensure the employees are being
treated equally and fair, this includes things such as fair pay, having the
best working conditions possible for the employees, alongside this, the
employer should listen and support its employees by forming a connection with
them, so they feel a lot more comfortable around the other employees, including
the employer themselves. (5 Psychological Theories of Motivation to Increase
Productivity, 2017)

The way Herzberg’s theory can be
implemented in the United Kingdom’s modern multicultural business environment
is by managers identifying the preferred way in which workers like to be distinguished,
also the different values which they all have, according to the cultural
background which they come from. An example of this is in cultures where
employees are more likely to be individualistic such as the UK or US, there may
be recognition prizes such as employee of the month will work well with the
employees, as their satisfaction and motivation levels will increase as they
are praised for the work in which they have completed. However, this could
differ to employees who come from an Asian background, as this may be more
demotivating instead of increasing motivation, as within Asian cultures,
employees preferred to be recognised for the group work which they do, and
working hard within a team. Being recognised for your work as an individual may
seem uncomfortable and could end up affecting the overall satisfaction levels
as a team. (Maclachlan, 2016)

Incentive Theories:

An
incentive theory is when a certain individual uses motivators such as money,
status, higher responsibility within their workplace, to increase the amount of
effort which they implement within their work. (Burns, 2017) These incentives
are used as a way of encouraging the employee to invest their time and effort
into the tasks they complete.

There
are multiple aspects on the influence of incentive factors, e.g. if rewards are
offered to the employees on a frequent basis, this can have an impact on how
motivated the employee is. The less amount of time in which they can obtain
these rewards, the more motivated the employees will be, moreover, if rewards
are given more occasionally, this could lead to the employees having an
elevated level of motivation for a longer duration.

Theory X and Theory Y:

This
theory explains that there are two different methods on how managers can be,
and how they work with their employees.

Douglas
McGregor had labelled Theory X as the ‘conventional view’ of management tasks.
His view of Theory X is that it is the employer’s duty to control and organise
how employees behave, or else this could lead to the employees becoming a lot
more laid back. He also stated that these employees lack determination, and
don’t enjoy working, so they prefer other people leading them.

Theory Y
has been based on ‘more adequate assumption about human nature’ This method is
explained as the manager not just directing its employees, but regulating
resources, so the organisation can reach its targets. The manager must provide
the employees with the opportunity to develop their skills, this can be by
giving them certain responsibilities to partake, and allowing them to be
independent and think of problem solving methods themselves. (Gannon, D. &
Boguszak, A. 2013)

They way
a Theory X manager will affect a multicultural business environment is that,
employers may come from diverse backgrounds and be brought up in separate ways,
so this may affect they respond to the way the managers viewpoints on employees
and how they act towards the employees, e.g. the manager could act with an
aggressive approach which the employee may find uncomfortable.

The way
a Theory Y manager may have an affect on this is by having a more lenient
approach towards the employees. They will ensure that the employees are a lot
more comfortable when working and the environment they work in by allowing them
to work in groups and being a lot more collaborative with each other. This can
allow employee satisfaction, and can also improve the productivity levels which
the produce.

Intrinsic Theories

Intrinsic
theory is a type of motivation which makes you want to achieve certain tasks,
and do activities which you enjoy. When a person is motivated intrinsically,
the activities which they do is, so they find pleasure from it, or because they
want to be challenged and succeed in it, instead of doing an activity because
of the rewards which they may retrieve or if they felt pressurised into doing
that certain activity.  (Ryan and Deci,
2000)

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs is a theory which consists of 5 steps of the necessities
which humans need in life. This is usually portrayed in a pyramid which shows
the lowest is the absolute necessary need of humans, and as it goes up a tier,
this shows the needs which can be built upon throughout human life.

The five
stages to the hierarchy of needs are physiological, safety, belonging, esteem,
and self-actualisation. The first four levels are mostly recognised as being
the deficiency needs, and the highest level is recognised as being needs. Once
the first level is reached, then the next tier should be what we focus on as
our motivation. This should carry on until we reach the highest tier. (McLeod,
S. A. 2017)

The way
an employer can fulfil physiological needs to its employees is by implementing
things such as regular breaks, and holidays, for the employees to get rest, and
restore their energy. Another need is a salary which will allow the employees
to have a living off, e.g. food, clothing, rent.

For the
security needs, the employers should ensure that the workplace is safe,
alongside the equipment they use. There should also be storage space for each
employee, e.g. lockers.

The
social needs should mainly consist of going group work with the employees, as
this will help improve their teamwork skills, also allow the employees to gain
confidence, and improve the overall communication skills.

The way
the esteem tier can be implemented within a workplace is by including rewards
for the employees, e.g. bonus pay checks, discount vouchers, employee of the
month, etc.

Another
method which is related to this theory, which can be implemented in the United
Kingdom’s modern multicultural business environment is by including spaces or
rooms for employees to pray as there may be workers who have religious beliefs.
An example of this is at most NHS Hospitals; they include prayer rooms such as
a mosque as well as a church, where employees can pray.

Employees
with different religious beliefs should be allowed to practice their religion,
e.g. employees who have of Sikh faith should be allowed to wear a turban whilst
working, or employees of Muslim faith being able to wear a headscarf. This
should be implemented by the employers to ensure that there is no
discrimination against the employee which takes place. (Religion
or belief in the workplace, 2013)

Other
implementations which is related to religion and belief is having time off from
work for religious holidays, such as Christmas and Eid. (Religion or belief in
the workplace, 2013)

Finally,
the self-actualisation need can be applied by the employer by ensuring the
employees recognise that they can develop and become better in their field.
This also goes alongside identifying when an employee has done well in a
certain task, and ensuring they realise that they’ve done well. (Burns, 2017)

Conclusion

In conclusion
I feel that Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory will work well within an organisation.
If motivators are implemented, then it will allow the employees to increase
their skillset, as they will have a lot more challenging work to complete,
alongside this they will have more responsibility within the workplace. This will
increase their satisfaction levels. The hygiene factors are key for any
organisation, as this is what prevents the overall job dissatisfaction. Factors
such as the salary, working conditions, policies, and security are necessary
for any organisation for the employees to feel comfortable. Theory X won’t work
as well as Theory Y, as this is a more aggressive approach to treating staff,
and could lead to employees feeling uncomfortable whilst working. Theory Y is a
better approach to treating employees, and should be implemented. Finally,
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is essential within a workplace, as people of
different religions may require certain needs, such as prayer rooms, or clothing
which they might need to wear, so once this is implemented, it will improve the
overall satisfaction levels of employees, as they will find it more comfortable
to be at the workplace. I would implement the two-factor theory, and have more
of a Theory Y mindset towards a business as I find that this will be best when
managing employees.