In contrastive textology, there are two linguistic disciplines called ascontrastive analysis and contrastive linguistic. This paper will focus oncontrastive linguistic that has close connection with translation studiesbefore there is no corpora and the connection between bothdisciplines after corpora are found.
Corpora contain manyauthenticsamples of the language. The importance of corpora lies in the fact that theyreveal patterns of language usage which `would not be easily detected otherwise,since “the language looks rather different if we look at a lot of it at once”(Sinclair 1991:100). Before discussing about the relationship between both disciplines withcorpus, we must know first the notion of contrastive linguistic and translationstudies. According to some experts, the teaching of language is based on someprinciples and one of the most important principles is contrastive linguistic.According to an expert, contrastive linguistic is defined as “the systematicsynchronic study of similarities and differences in the structure and use oftwo or more language varieties, carried out for theoretical or practicalpurposes.
” (Bugarski 1991:77). Contrastive linguistic contrasts two languagelevels having aims to examine the aspects of differences between both languagelevels and to identify the difficulties caused by the differences. Whereas according to Holmes (1988b/2004: 181),translation studies is defined as the complex of problems clustered round thephenomenon of translating and translations.
‘ Commonly, translation studies isthe academic discipline that is related to the study of the theory andphenomena of translation. From the mid-1950s, there had been an interest that grows in analyzing the translationprocess from different perspectives, especially linguistic ones, but no clear-cut approachhad yet been put forward to integrate all the different aspects playing a rolein the translation process. Thus, translation is considered as a branch of other disciplines such as contrastive linguisticor interlanguage studies.
After knowing the notions of contrastive linguistic and translation studies, we could know the connectionbetween both disciplines before there is no corpus. Languageand linguistic relate to both disciplines in general. Contrastive linguisticand translation studies are also related to applied linguistics inparticular. Both disciplines havea similarity that is both disciplines discuss about two languages at the same time. Both also have close relationship to thepoint of having been considered one and the same thing. Most contrastivelinguists consider that translation as a means ofestablishing the relationships of cross-linguistic.
James hasstated that “translation equivalence, of this rather rigorously defined sortincluding interpersonal and textual as well as ideational meaning is the bestavailable TC tertium comparationis for CA contrastive analysis.” (James1980:178). There are also some theories about the relationshipbetween contrastive linguistic and translation studies given by Halliday, Bausch, Raabe, andKühlwein et al.
Contrastive linguistics is the theory and method used to compare the working ofdifferent languages. Since translation can be considered as a special case of this kind ofcomparison, comparative descriptive linguistics includes the theory oftranslation (Halliday et al. 1964:112).
The interests that are related to contrastive linguistic and translation have led to asignificant amount of literature on the relationship between the twodisciplines from a very early stage (Bausch 1972; Raabe 1972; Kühlwein et al.1981), before computer corpora become widely available in language research. There are two issues that become the focusof the early perspectives of this connection. The first is the usefulness of translation equivalence. It isthe only valid tertium comparationis (TC) for a successful contrastive analysis.
The second is the results application of a contrastive analysis in different translationstudies aspects. Ivir points out that “Translation can serve as a tool ofcontrastive analysis, while the findings of contrastive analysis may – inaddition to their other practical applications – be applied in the training oftranslators, preparation of translation manuals, and, most importantly perhaps,in constructing a theory of translation.” (Ivir, 1981:209).Then, this paper will discuss about the connectionbetween both disciplines, contrastivelinguistic and trasnlationstudies, with corpus. Corpora, especially electronic corpora, play theimportant role in both disciplines. A corpus provides many real examples of one structure and the same structure. In the beginning ofthe 1990s, translation studies hasused electronic corpora. According to Laviosa, “thecorpus-based approach is evolving, through theoretical elaboration andempirical realization, into a coherent, composite and rich paradigm thataddresses a variety of issues pertaining to theory, description, and thepractice of translation.
” (Laviosa 1998:1).Translation becomes the maininterest for contrastive linguistic. It is as opposed to previous works that focus mainly on the teaching of foreign language. On the otherhand, the focus of translationstudies on real translations needs some types or other of cross-linguistic analysisfacilitated by the use of corpora. Without considering translation as its application, corpus-based contrastivelinguistic can still exist.
Whereas any type of approach to translationfrom a descriptive corpus-based perspective must take into account some kinds of contrastiveaspect. Translation cannot well exist without the presence of contrastivelinguistic. No study into translation can be done by ignoring previous contrastive analyses.
The previous contrastive analyses play the important role fortranslation studies. Contrastive linguistic becomes a basic ingredient of translation studies. In recent years, contrastive linguitic dan translation studies showa parallel development. It is accompanied by a clear shift from theperspectives of theoretical to a descriptive and applied issues that aresupported by language corpora called translatio-oriented contrastivelinguistic. The focus of translationstudies is on real texts that are translated and their originals has made itunavoidable to use analyses of a contrastive type. In conclusion, contrastive linguistic and translation studies have theirown aims in language teaching. Contrastive linguistic has an aim to obtain theknowledge about two different languages on a basis of descriptive because itbasically refers to descriptive linguistic.
While translation studies aims toget knowledge about the actual translation process between two differentlanguages. Besides, contrastive linguistic concerns on more general basis. While translation studies contrasts between twolanguages on specialized basis. Bothdisciplines have a similarity to discuss two language at the same time. Contrastive linguistic and translationstudies have close connection. Language andlinguistic relate to both disciplines in general. Both are also related to applied linguistics in particular.
Translationis considered as a branch of other disciplines such as contrastivelinguistic or interlanguage studies.Contrastive linguistic and translation studies also have a closerelationship with corpus. Electronic corpora have an important role in both disciplines. In recentyears, contrastive linguitic dan translation studies show a paralleldevelopment that is accompanied by a clear shift from the perspectives oftheoretical to a descriptive and applied issues that are supported by languagecorpora called translatio-oriented contrastive linguistic.
Corpus gives an important progress in contrastivelinguistic and translation studies. Corpus also gives a big influence in other disciplines and in their relationships.