In today’s society when kids get older their habits, determination, and state of flow can start to change, but what exactly are these three traits and how does it affect our health and our mind. Drive by David pink, Habits by Charles Duhigg, and Stealing fire by Steven Kotler. All of these authors and their books explain their take on human behaviors and how the three traits affect our body and mind.When we look out at a sea of bored faced we know that students either do not know what the goal is, don’t care about the goal, or view the work (for whatever reason) simply as an obligation.The field of human motivation is a complex and expensive domain, not lacking in motivational experts or approaches. Wong and Csikszentmihalyi examined the relationship between personality traits and studying habits. Most people can recall a time from their childhood when they were playing a game with friends that was so enjoyable that they were entirely engrossed in what they were doing; it didn’t matter who won the game, and the time just flew by because they were having such a great time.
A case example might help clarify the principle. Intrinsic motivation comes with a complete absence of any internal or external pressure to perform well. Many parents are responsible for causing their offspring to drop out of sport prematurely because they place such an overemphasis on winning that participation just isn’t fun. On balance, it is much more important to be high in intrinsic motivation than to be high in extrinsic motivation. Therefore, internal rewards become more important. Maslow suggested that individuals engage in activities that lack external reward in an attempt to discover one’s limitation and potential (Csikszentmihalyi, 1988 p.5).
As you examine the idea of self theories (Dweck, 1999) and the development of a “mastery orientation” to work, in the next chapter consider how one’s orientation to the task can create more or less of a psychological sense the one is “going somewhere” in the effort. What would happen to our motivation? In comparison, let’s say that we were paid per week. In the context of school learning, which involves operating in a relatively structured environment, students with mastery goals outperform students with either performance or social goals. This is known as external, or extrinsic, motivation because it involves participation in sport for some kind of reward that is external to the process of participation. It can be something that comes from within us. These authors propose 5 factors as the sources of motivation: 1) Instrumental Motivation (rewards and punishers,2) Intrinsic Process Motivation (enjoyment, fun), Goal Internalization (self-determined values and goals), Internal Self Concept-based Motivation (matching behavior with internally-developed ideal self), External Self Concept-based Motivation (matching behavior with externally-developed ideal self). The flow inducing activity is goal directed, with an established rule system that provides clear feedback as to how one is performing. This supports the theory of flow, as advanced courses are optional and more difficult to handle.
Neither boredom A2, nor anxiety A3, are a positive experiences. Results suggest that flow is predictive of mood, but mood states are not associated with later flow. Rewards, pain-based motivators, meaningless tasks, learning in isolation, and a lack of support all act to block intrinsic sources of motivation. The results suggest that the students were welcoming of new challenges, persisted in the face of obstacles and maintained their interest despite failures.
However, he cannot stay there for long. A study by (Asakawa, 2009) examined the characteristics of flow activities, time management, and goal directedness related to autotelic personality types. When these basic needs are satisfied, high intrinsic motivation results and athletes are stimulated by their participation in sport; they strive to learn new skills and improve their performance.When one thinks of the idea of classroom motivation it often brings to mind strategies that are used to provide incentives for students do something and/or do it with greater intensity. Yet, when we examine motivation more closely we recognize that it is not always something that is added to the situation.
While an absolute distinction can be risky, we might refer to some motivators as coming from the outside – or being extrinsic; and others coming from within – or being intrinsic. That is, if an individual does not believe he or she can be successful at a task OR the individual does not see a connection between his or her activity and success OR the individual does not value the results of success, then the probability is lowered that the individual will engage in the required learning activity. Being driven solely by extrinsic motives is not psychologically healthy because the lack of intrinsic rewards can lead you to quit or seriously question your involvement. From the perspective of this theory, all three variables must be high in order for motivation and the resulting behavior to be high.
Intrinsic motivational techniques cannot be as easily explained as separate techniques or strategies when compared to the extrinsic techniques. Coaches and parents should work together to create a positive motivational climate for young athletes. If challenges are too low, one gets back to flow by increasing them.
Csikszentmihalyi’s text, Boredom and Anxiety (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) published the first comprehensive statement explaining the flow experience. The research relating to flow and work suggests that in order to better the experiences of employees and consequently increase their productivity, employers and employees should create and engage in flow inducing activities. Important lessons for children to learn are that increased effort enhances their performance and that sport is essentially a fun activity. In the long run, extrinsic motivation is only effective when intrinsic motivation is high. Figure 7.1 outlines some of the fundamental distinctions between internal versus external sources of motivation.
Most motivational theorists assume that motivation is involved in the performance of all learned responses; that is, a learned behavior will not occur unless it is energized. Coaches should be aware that fostering intrinsic motives brings about the best psychological outcomes for children. The study also confirms that creating optimal experience in work activities enhances positive mood (Fullagar & Kelloway,2009).Achievement Motivation One classification of motivation differentiates among achievement, power, and social factors (see McClelland, 1985; Murray, 1938, 1943). Intrinsic motivation is closely allied to the fundamental motivation to learn and acquire new skills. Like any successful methodology, they must be developed intentionally, but a holistic approach is most effective. Being driven solely by extrinsic motives is not psychologically healthy because the lack of intrinsic rewards can lead you to quit or seriously question your involvement. (Wong & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).
The letter A represents Andy, a boy who is learning to play chess. These forms of motivation may reflect the meeting of a basic need, or can come from an inner source of satisfaction, such as personal fulfillment. It was observed that students high in the trait of intrinsic motivation were more likely to choose challenging and difficult courses to study. Therefore, all three must be present in relatively high levels in order for motivation to occur. Autotelic personality types, as defined by the study, reported higher levels of flow in everyday activities, and the highest scores on time management and goal directedness measures.Flow occurs when there is a perfect match between the perceived demands of an activity and the perceived ability to meet the demands.
This is not a very difficult feat, but Andy is likely to enjoy it because the difficulty is suitable for his rudimentary skills, at this point he will probably be in flow. People describe a state of concentration that is so intense, that there is no attention left over to consider anything outside the task. In the former situation, the individual is more likely to select easy or difficult tasks, thereby either achieving success or having a good excuse for why failure occurred. Exercise 2.
3 will assist you in applying concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to your own sport participation.At the time of Csikszentmihalyi’s original study, the leading researcher in the field of motivation was Abraham Maslow. Extrinsic forms are those in which there is something added that comes from an external agent, such as a reward from the teacher. Eisenberger et al. For this reason the flow experience is the ultimate example of intrinsic motivation.
Most people can recall a time from their childhood when they were playing a game with friends that was so enjoyable that they were entirely engrossed in what they were doing; it didn’t matter who won the game, and the time just flew by because they were having such a great time. What we have just said about the combination of extrinsic and intrinsic motives does not hold for young athletes, and in particular prepubescent athletes. If challenges are too great, one can return to the flow state by learning new skills.As we examine the conditions that meet basic needs we find that they have the effect of promoting intrinsic motivation and vice versa. In the area of achievement motivation, the work on goal-theory (Pintrich, 2000) has differentiated three separate types of goals: mastery goals (also called learning goals) which focus on gaining competence or mastering a new set of knowledge or skills; performance goals (also called ego-involvement goals) which focus on achieving normative-based standards, doing better than others, or doing well without a lot of effort; and social goals which focus on relationships among people (see Ames, 1992; Dweck, 1986; Urdan & Maehr, 1995).
This creates a state in which you are intrinsically rewarded by the movement patterns involved. Individuals are influenced by all five factors, though in varying degrees that can change in specific situations.When experiencing a state of flow individuals often describe a balance, in which one’s skills are adequate to cope with the challenges presented. Let’s say we are getting paid as our reinforcement–assume that we agreed to do the work for $50 a day. How would that affect our level of motivation? What if our supervisor stopped by every once in awhile and gave us a bonus if they observed an exceptional level of effort? As you can see all of these variables will affect our level of motivation. There are two main sources of motivation.
See: Motivation and work satisfaction. Bakker found a positive correlation between flow experienced at work and overall job satisfaction. 74).Demerouti found that flow predicted both kinds of performances among employees high on the personality trait of conscientious. Much of the process of promoting intrinsic motivation involves the removal of barriers to the students’ abilities to access their inner motives and satisfiers. For one’s intrinsic sources of motivation to grow, the learning context must support them. Intrinsic motivation is about enjoyment and immersion in an activity, whereas self-motivation can involve an internal pressure to perform well, which is part of personality.
Our own research has shown that athletes who have the best motivational outcomes, such as persistence, a positive attitude, and unflinching concentration, tend to be both extrinsically and intrinsically motivated. One aspect of this theory is that individuals are motivated to either avoid failure (more often associated with performance goals) or achieve success (more often associated with mastery goals). As the old Russian saying advises, you should take time to smell the roses!Many athletes and coaches ask us to identify the main difference between intrinsic motivation and self-motivation (which you assessed previously). Generally speaking, motivation can come from the outside, such as the motivation to win medals, receive financial rewards, and attract attention from the media. An activity that produces flow is so gratifying that people are willing to take part in it without external rewards. In the long run, extrinsic motivation is only effective when intrinsic motivation is high.
They need time to fully master the skills involved in their sport without the pressures of winning and constantly comparing themselves to others. Exercise 2.3 will assist you in applying concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to your own sport participation. Conversely, athletes who are predominantly intrinsically motivated often do not have the competitive drive to become champions. found that employees who perceived high skills and high challenges in their occupation, more frequently engaged in tasks outside their roles, such as making constructive suggestions, enhancing one’s own knowledge and skills in ways that can help the organisation, taking preventative actions to protect the organisation from potential problems and helping co-workers. When we give increased responsibility, we are not so much adding something or giving something to the student, we are allowing the basic needs for power, contribution, and belonging to be fulfilled and the student therefore to bloom. This chapter offers a limited survey of several classroom motivation strategies and endeavors to provide both theoretical and practical perspective for each. During flow, you lose self-consciousness and become one with the activity.
Contrastingly, intrinsic forms tap into internal sources. Japanese college students were asked to complete various flow measures with reference to five daily activities. Intrinsic motivation comes with a complete absence of any internal or external pressure to perform well. The building blocks, or psychological needs, that underlie intrinsic motivation are the need to determine one’s behavior (what psychologists term self-determination), the need to feel competent, and the need for relatedness, or to have meaningful relationships with other people. For adult athletes, high performance levels may be stimulated partly by the tangible rewards that sport provides, but still the emphasis should be on the fun associated with participation. Generally speaking, motivation can come from the outside, such as the motivation to win medals, receive financial rewards, and attract attention from the media. Although, both states are equally enjoyable, the two states are quite different. On the other hand, athletes who participate because they enjoy the process—that is, they find sport interesting, stimulating, and enjoyable without being preoccupied by external rewards—are predominantly internally, or intrinsically, motivated.
However, in the initial stages the concept of flow was labeled an autotelic experience.There should be distinctions drawn between autotelic activities, autotelic personalities, and autotelic experiences. For most of us the task alone is not inherently reinforcing. Research has shown that the motivational climate can be performance oriented, which means focused on social comparison and winning, or mastery oriented, which means focused on self-referenced goals and feelings of competence. If we feel that the goal is just a means to an end (i.e.
, we want to feel a sense of relief, we want to avoid failure, we want to make sure others are pleased, etc.) we will only experience a limited degree of motivation as we take part in the task. The building blocks, or psychological needs, that underlie intrinsic motivation are the need to determine one’s behavior (what psychologists term self-determination), the need to feel competent, and the need for relatedness, or to have meaningful relationships with other people.
The diagram shows that both A1 and A4 represent situation in which Andy is in flow. An example is provided by Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl. This is known as external, or extrinsic, motivation because it involves participation in sport for some kind of reward that is external to the process of participation. The latter type of climate is by far better for young athletes.
Imagine if you were given the task of pulling weeds. This is because they tend to enjoy mastering the tasks that comprise their chosen discipline, but they lack a strong competitive streak in their personalities. When we assist students on a path of personal growth, we inevitably meet the needs of power and competence.
When these basic needs are satisfied, high intrinsic motivation results and athletes are stimulated by their participation in sport; they strive to learn new skills and improve their performance. Flow is seen as the ultimate experience among the sporting community. Intrinsic motivation is about enjoyment and immersion in an activity, whereas self-motivation can involve an internal pressure to perform well, which is part of personality. Individuals will engage in the task with little concern for what they will get out of it, even when it is difficult or dangerous.
For adult athletes, high performance levels may be stimulated partly by the tangible rewards that sport provides, but still the emphasis should be on the fun associated with participation. The results suggest that flow activities are related to the processes of personal growth and self-advancement, and also provide pleasure and motivation for subsequent activity. Many athletes and coaches refer to flow as being “in the zone,” “on song,” or “in the groove.” It is an optimal psychological state and a deeply pleasurable experience.Intrinsic motivation is closely allied to the fundamental motivation to learn and acquire new skills.
So we would likely only do it for some payment. That is, are changes in behavior better explained by principles of environmental/ecological influences, perception, memory, cognitive development, emotion, explanatory style, or personality or are concepts unique to motivation more pertinent.Research suggests that personality traits may have more of an effect on student’s experiences of flow, than the characteristics of the activity. On balance, it is much more important to be high in intrinsic motivation than to be high in extrinsic motivation. Andy essentially has one choice as he continues to improve his skills, he must increase the challenges he is facing and enter flow as described by A4. The major question among psychologists, in general, is whether motivation is a primary or secondary influence on behavior. It is not a stable situation. In the following chapter, a coherent approach to building student intrinsic motivation, or what will be referred to as a “psychology of success” is detailed.
Since this formula states that the three factors of Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence or Value are to be multiplied by each other, a low value in one will result in a low value of motivation. What would our motivational level be for our first day? Assume that we were paid the same amount no matter what our rate or quality. However, in life success, it seems critical that individuals have all three types of goals in order to be very successful.
As the old Russian saying advises, you should take time to smell the roses!Maslow’s work lead to additional attempts to develop a grand theory of motivation, a theory that would put all of the factors influencing motivation into one model. Those who know where they are going and feel a deep sense of satisfaction in the getting there rarely feel bored. Maslow’s model, although comprehensive, did not provide explanations as to how these experiences felt, if any activity could potentially become intrinsically rewarding, or if any individual could experience flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1988 p.5). Or it might happen that he meets a more practiced opponent, in which case he will begin to feel some anxiety about his poor performance. Consequently, self-consciousness disappears and one’s sense of time becomes distorted.
When he starts playing chess, A1, Andy has practically no skills and the only challenge he faces is trying to remember the rules of the game. Having intrinsic motivation helps you get through dry patches in your career and keeps the emphasis on having fun. Athletes who are predominantly extrinsically motivated tend to become discouraged when they do not perform to expectations and can experience a downturn in form.
If we find joy in the “getting there” and experience learning as a means to growth we will feel a deeper sense of motivation. After a while if he keeps practicing, his skills will improve and he will grow bored of just moving the pieces according to the rules of the game. As Andy keeps playing he will get better and should continue to push himself up the flow channel as his skills improve and the complexity level gets harder and harder (adapted from Csikszentmihalyi, 1990 p. Fullagar and Kelloway tested the causality between flow and mood.
The nature of the flow experience will often push individual to a higher level of performance. They would not change the stated goal, but they would affect our psychological sense of movement toward that goal.There are two main sources of motivation. On the other hand, athletes who participate because they enjoy the process—that is, they find sport interesting, stimulating, and enjoyable without being preoccupied by external rewards—are predominantly internally, or intrinsically, motivated. Maslow labeled this type of motivation as a desire for self-actualisation. The diagram shows Andy at four points in time. Many athletes and coaches ask us to identify the main difference between intrinsic motivation and self-motivation (which you assessed previously). A4 is a complex state that continues to be enjoyable.
And as we examine the effect of instruction on motivation in Chapter 13, it will be evident that creating a learning context in which basic needs are met is a more effective means to achieving student motivation than bribing students to do work they find meaningless and unsatisfying.As we examine what could be considered the basic needs of each of us, consider how the satisfaction of getting needs met affects one’s level of motivation, and a decreased necessity to engage in what Dreikurs calls “mistaken goals.” These are goals that give us a sense of satisfaction and psychological movement, but are unhealthy for all concerned. In the latter situation, the individual is more likely to select moderately difficult tasks which will provide an interesting challenge, but still keep the high expectations for success.Flow also happens when a person’s skills are fully involved in overcoming a challenge that is just about manageable, so it acts as a magnet for learning new skills and increasing challenges. Having intrinsic motivation helps you get through dry patches in your career and keeps the emphasis on having fun.