In forced convective heat transfer due to flow

Inengineering and industrial systems buoyancy-driven flow and heat transfer in verticalgeometries have several important applications for instance solar-collectors, electricaland microelectronic equipments containers, petroleum reservoirs, geothermalengineering, thermal buildings insulation, etc. To discuss the importance ofbuoyancy force on fluid flow and heat transfer under various physicalconditions, many studies have been published. The combined effect of buoyancyforce and Navier slip on magneto-hydrodynamic flow of a nanofluid over aconvectively heated vertical porous plate was numerically investigated byMutuku-Njane and Makinde 18.The forced convective heat transfer due to flowof  Al2O3–water nanofluidthrough a pipe filled with a metal foam was studied experimentally by Nazari etal.19. Duringthe motion of fluid particles, viscosity of the fluid converts some kineticenergy into thermal energy.

Since this process is irreversible and caused dueto viscosity, so this is called viscous dissipation. Viscous dissipation is quiteoften a negligible effect inmacro scale systems, in laminar flow in particular, except for very viscousliquids at comparatively high velocities, but it’s contribution mightbecome important when the fluid viscosity is very high. It changes thetemperature distributions by playing a role like an energy source, which leadsto affected heat transfer rates. The effect of viscous and joules dissipationon MHD flow past a streaching poroussurface embedded  in a porous medium for ordinary fluid was studiedby Anjali devi and Ganga 21 .

The effect of thermal radiation and viscousdissipation on boundary layer flow of nanofluids over a moving flat plate wereinvestigated by Motsumi and Makinde 22.The flow of MHD viscous fluid in porous medium through a moving verticalplate was inspected by singh23. The stagnation point flow of micropolar fluidthrough porous medium and heat transfer with viscous dissipation was discussedby Kishan et al 24