In forced convective heat transfer due to flow

engineering and industrial systems buoyancy-driven flow and heat transfer in vertical
geometries have several important applications for instance solar-collectors, electrical
and microelectronic equipments containers, petroleum reservoirs, geothermal
engineering, thermal buildings insulation, etc. To discuss the importance of
buoyancy force on fluid flow and heat transfer under various physical
conditions, many studies have been published. The combined effect of buoyancy
force and Navier slip on magneto-hydrodynamic flow of a nanofluid over a
convectively heated vertical porous plate was numerically investigated by
Mutuku-Njane and Makinde 18.The forced convective heat transfer due to flow
of  Al2O3–water nanofluid
through a pipe filled with a metal foam was studied experimentally by Nazari et

the motion of fluid particles, viscosity of the fluid converts some kinetic
energy into thermal energy. Since this process is irreversible and caused due
to viscosity, so this is called viscous dissipation. Viscous dissipation is quite
often a negligible effect in
macro scale systems, in laminar flow in particular, except for very viscous
liquids at comparatively high velocities, but it’s contribution might
become important when the fluid viscosity is very high. It changes the
temperature distributions by playing a role like an energy source, which leads
to affected heat transfer rates. The effect of viscous and joules dissipation
on MHD flow past a streaching poroussurface embedded  in a porous medium for ordinary fluid was studied
by Anjali devi and Ganga 21 .The effect of thermal radiation and viscous
dissipation on boundary layer flow of nanofluids over a moving flat plate were
investigated by Motsumi and Makinde 22.The flow of MHD viscous fluid in porous medium through a moving vertical
plate was inspected by singh23. The stagnation point flow of micropolar fluid
through porous medium and heat transfer with viscous dissipation was discussed
by Kishan et al 24

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