In growth. Not all bacteria need oxygen to

In a bacterial cell, there are many parts which help to make up the structure of it, each have their own unique function to aid the bacterial cell. Capsule: it protects the inside of the cell from engulfment, also contains water which protects it from desiccation. Pili:  They are the little hairs which connect to things and other surrounding cells. Cell wall: It has a semi-ridged wall for protection and it keeps its shape Plasma membrane: It is semi permeable, and it allows nutrients through the cell however they cannot be too large otherwise they won’t fit. Nucleoid: It is where the DNA is contained and has no certain structure. Ribosome: This is where protein synthesis occurs Cytoplasm: The jelly like substance which holds everything together in the cell Flagellum: It has a tail which helps the cell to move around.  Bacteria reproduce by binary fission which is an asexual type of reproduction. During this process, the single cell bacterium divides into two daughter cell which are completely identical. For bacteria to grow they have certain conditions which they require for optimum growth, these include a warm temperature. This is important because they have adapted to reproduce in human and animal body temperatures which are higher. They also need moist conditions because the bacteria use the water to dissolve the food that they use for growth.  Not all bacteria need oxygen to grow however if they do it is called aerobic respiration and if the bacteria do not need oxygen it is called anaerobic respiration. Due to the warmth, the bacterium can reproduce at a high rate and spread throughout the body and contaminate. This means that if the conditions were colder, lower than body temperature, then the salmonella bacterium would not be able to reproduce and grow as quickly compared to in warm moist conditions.   Types of Bacterium Salmonella. Transmission Salmonella enters the body by the ingesting of contaminated food, this could be due to under cooked food or food poisoning from animals such as live stock. This is due to the salmonella living in the intestines of the animal where it infects the insides which causes it is usually transmitted to humans through eating the contaminated food.  Animals can be affected by salmonella through the excretion of feaces and in the saliva and can cause fevers, the animal to lose their appetite, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Most animals are carriers of salmonella and are asymptomatic however they can become infected.   Bordetella Bordetella in animals is also known as kennel cough Bordetella can transmit in several ways which includes via famites, respiratory aerosol droplets and via direct contact.  The pathogenesis is that the bacterium multiply and spread throughout the respiratory tract, this causes a release of toxins into the respiratory tract which can cause the cilia, which clears the mucus and dirt from the lungs, to paralyses, this means that the respiratory tract inflames so that there is interference with clearing the tract causing a build up of dirt which influences the coughing. Some of the effects on an animal which has include a large amount of coughing, nasal discharge which is watery, retching and heaving and general discomfort. Transmission Function Effects caused  Symptoms  Treatment               Virus A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside of cells of living hosts, viruses reproduce at a fast rate.     Functions of the virus Genome: For gene transcription, translation and regulation of gene expression and protein interactions Capsid: protects the nucleic acid from digestive enzymes, allows the virus to attach to a host cell and provides proteins Capsome: outer covering of protein that protects the genetic material Nucleocapsid: Binds the proteins Growth and reproduction For a virus to grow it needs to be inside of a living cell and must have a host cell to survive so that it can replicate. Viruses by attaching itself to a specific host cell, where it then injects its genetic material into the host cell. This causes the host cell to use the genetic material to make new viruses which causes the host cell to split open which causes more viruses in the body which pass out into the bloodstream so that they spread quickly throughout the body.  Most viruses transmit through touching and coming into contact with contaminated objects and possessions which already contain the virus, they also can be transmitted by coming into contact with a person or animal that has the virus. Finally, it can be transmitted by inhaling the virus which is in the air. Viruses thrive better in winter than summer because on the viruses outer covering (envelope) becomes a hard shield for the virus due to the cold temperatures turning the rubber like gel harder which makes it stronger so it is able to pass from animal to animal and person to person. However, in the summer, the envelope isn’t as solid as it liquefies and the protective gel starts to melt. This means that the virus is more exposed to getting treated and killed as the protective barrier isn’t working as efficiently which means that’s it cannot spread as easily. : Types of virus Feline influenza This virus is an upper respiratory tract issue which takes over the cells and reproduces. This virus is extremely fatal to cats which have weaker immune systems such as kittens and older cats, this is because their immune systems is not fully developed or that it is growing older and not working as effectively.  Feline influenza can be spread through the air, touching and contaminated equipment. This virus is very hard to treat as there are not many anti-viral vaccinations which work as efficiently, this means that the virus will most likely be in the felines system for the majority of its life. Effects on the animal The feline can display many symptoms of feline influenza, some of which include sneezing more than usual, coughing a lot and having discharge from the eyes and nose. Some more symptoms include a high body temperature, loss of appetite, raspy or congested-sounding breathing, lethargy and generally subdued behavior.  Canine parvovirus This type of virus spreads via direct nasal contact and through oral contact with infected animal feaces. It can also be transmitted through objects which may have been in contact with infected feaces such as the grass in a public area, bedding, food and water bowls. This virus can live for a very long time which makes it more dangerous, for example it can live in a public place for up to 6 months which enables it to grow and spread for a longer period of time. Growth and reproduction This virus attacks the cells in the body which divide at a rapid rate; this affects the intestines which mean they are unable to absorb the vital nutrients which are very important in their diets. This virus attacks the dog’s white blood cells when they are younger and as they have developing immune systems so this is fatal for them. Some of the symptoms of canine parvovirus include weight loss and anorexia, vomiting with a high fever, diarrhea and dehydration.     Fungi   Cell wall: It has a semi-ridged wall for protection and it keeps its shape Nucleus: It is where the DNA is contained and has no certain structure. Ribosome: This is where protein synthesis occurs Cytoplasm: The jelly like substance which holds everything together in the cell Cell membrane: controls the movement of the cell and what does in and out. Mitochondria: the respiration in cells.  Fungi can reproduce both asexually and sexually. During the asexual process, reproduction can happen by fragmentation which is the colonizing of organisms; it can also reproduce by budding which is when an out growth is developed which will grow. Finally, fungi can reproduce asexually by producing spores which are carried by the rain and wind and where they land in the ground is where the cell germinates.  There are multiple types of fungi which all have different conditions for which they like to grow in, for example, dome like to grow in warm and moist conditions        Examples of fungi Microsporum canis  reproduces asexually and it is a fungal disease which infects dead layers of skin and causes inflammation of the skin, hair loss and bumps across the body. General   Transmission   Function