In the past,most of the medicinal drugs have been stumble on either by unintentionaldiscovery or identifying the active ingredients from customary cures. Recentdrug discovery is faced with the challenge of designing chemical reactions thatare greatly capable of affording most of the elements of structural complexityand variety with least synthetic steps for specific target with fascinatingproperties.1 In the current past, combinatorial chemistry has beenconsidered as a powerful strategy for the fast creation of lead compounds inthe drug discovery process.
2 Thus, the main driving force behind theincreased curiosity in this field has been the need to discover and develop newchemical entities with desirable properties in a cost-effective and moreefficient manner, and most importantly within a short period of time.Presently, most of the drugs in the market are small organic compounds thatcontain heterocyclic motifs. However, in combinatorial chemistry, there aresome shortcomings of accessibility and availability of functionalizedheterocyclic building blocks for the synthesis of different libraries. Therefore,the development of new, efficient and green synthetic reactions remains a vitalchallenge to synthetic chemists.3To achieve such goals, syntheticchemists explore multicomponent reaction (MCRs) strategies which create theseveral bonds in a single reaction step using readily available startingmaterials.
4 MCR is considered as an efficient tool for the synthesisof structurally diverse organic molecules as well as small drug likeheterocycles. It also offered remarkable green chemistry features such asoperational simplicity, atom economy, synthetic convergence, bond efficiency,short synthetic period, fewer workup and purification processes as well as highselectivity.5 Nitrogen-containing heterocycliccompounds (N-heterocycles) have upheld the interest of researchers throughdecades of historical development of organic synthesis.6 They havebeen used as medicinal compounds for centuries, and form the basis for manycommon natural drugs such as Morphine (analgesic) Captopril (antihypertensive)and Vincristine (anticancer).7 N-heterocycles occur in a variety ofnatural products and drugs and are of great importance in a wide variety ofapplications. In view of the general observation that the biological andpharmacological activities are invariably related with a large variety ofnitrogen heterocyclic systems such as 1,4-dihydropyridine, and coumarin fusedN-hetrocycles etc.
A large number oftheir new derivatives have been synthesized and extensively studied for variouspharmacological properties.