In conclusionthe rest of the world can learn many things from an indigenous tribe such asthe Korowai for example, people don’thave to rely only on specific meat or plants as there is a wide variety ofanimals and plants that are edible. People can even switch to vegetarianism orveganism and feed off meat once per month as the tribe is doing as a hunt mightturn out to be unsuccessful and become forced to eat something else such asplants, fruits and insects. This willcontribute to the climate changes if less animals are raised for the people tofeed on then less methane will be released in the atmosphere. If everydayhumans lived some time with this tribe respect for nature and for people willeventually start to form.
When it comes to survival people are required to worktogether and help each other instead of being selfish, which in the tribal communitythis will cause death and unity will bring prosperity. The tribe can live offthe rainforest without money, but if the rainforest is deforested Korowaipeople will lose everything. This tribe can live happily with what the forestis providing, people in the rich nations can see this as an inspiration that peopledo not have to buy anything that capitalism produces in order to be fulfilledand can live happily with just a few things.Indigenous way of living might havethe answer for a more sustainable future according to the United Nations (1989)in order for some people, communities or nations to be recognised as indigenous, must have historical continuation withsocieties that existed before the invasion of the colonial societies that settledon indigenous lands. As well as being different from areas that other peoplelive in and focus to develop, preserve and transmit to the future generationsthe ancestral territories as well as the ethnic identity by following thecultural and traditional patterns. (Dove, 2006) The indigenous people called Korowai tribeareliving in the heart of the island Papua deep in therainforest. These people live a very different lifestyle as most western peopleknow. The government offered help to the tribe by providing build materials andmoney to settle.
If the tribe accepts the help of the government will become dependent on the government. Therefore theKorowai people decided to stay on the ancestral land to be free. The tribe is open to people that want to visit and learn howto hunt and how to build raised houses away from the jungle floor. This tribebenefits from capitalism as tour guides bring white coloured skin tourists inthe area of Korowai tribe to show them how the tribe lives but the tribe becamemodernised as Korowai used to be cannibals and after learning aboutChristianity and as well as law persecution have stopped killing each other andpeople in general. The tribe even wears clothes but when the tourists come the tribehides them and are dressed and act with the indigenous lifestyle. The touristsare fooled that are the first white people for the tribe ever have contactwith.
The people in the community feed sometimes on the flour produced by cuttingdown a big and tall tree called Sago found in swamps which is very low in nutrients,but it can sustain 2-3 families for up to 3 months. The women collect thefibres from the bark of specific trees to weaver things for the use of the tribeas well as to sell and make money. Because the tribe lives off the rainforest,there is respect and sensitivity the whole living space of the tribe can becovered by foot around 2 hours which this suggests this might be the cause thatthe tribe was previously undiscovered. The tribe feeds generally in anythingedible the forest has to offer for example insects and fruits. But men andwomen in the community eat, sleep and do things separately even raisingchildren comes with shifts. Among the tribe,there used to be a belief in witches, spiritsand reincarnation which were cultural parts even the sacrifices of pigs for thehonor of the ancestors. The tribe became affected when white people found it around1970s as years passed the tribe no longer believes the culture that werebrought up with and the knowledge grew the tribe speaks fluent Indonesian andthis caused the development of the tribe to live in houses and have income fromtourism.
(National Geographic Documentary)USDA (November 2017) 2013/14 2014/15 2015/16 2016/17 Oct 2017/18 Nov 2017/18 Oil, Coconut 3.38 3.37 3.32 3.
38 3.44 3.44 Oil, Cottonseed 5.16 5.12 4.29 4.40 4.
99 5.03 Oil, Olive 3.20 2.40 3.12 2.49 3.00 2.
70 Oil, Palm 59.30 61.81 58.83 62.29 66.87 66.
87 Oil, Palm Kernel 7.07 7.31 7.01 7.
39 7.80 7.80 Oil, Peanut 5.72 5.43 5.
44 5.87 5.87 5.93 Oil, Rapeseed 27.27 27.61 27.
86 28.05 28.63 28.69 Oil, Soybean 45.19 49.29 51.54 53.
95 56.16 56.29 Oil, Sunflowerseed 15.
45 14.92 15.38 18.17 17.96 17.76 Total 171.75 177.27 176.
78 185.99 194.70 194.49 Table 1 below shows theproduction of 9 different types of vegetable oils in the period of five years2013/14 to 2017/18 in million tonnesGenerally capitalism changed the worldinto the favour of the system to increase the income by consumption,consumerism though is how people are brought together by the artificialmodification of the environment. Humanity has become depended by makingpurchases of products and goods everyone is a consumer.
Buying products is aneveryday thing and is part of the normal life, people feel alive because ofconsumption. This kind of behaviour has been impacting heavily the planet and doesnot stop but on the other hand people cannot stop being consumers as society willnot change. People as consumers have essential requirements, for example whenbuying a house or food. Large social systems such as corporations, banks andgovernments are acting with the consumerism pattern and make the people followit, for example the building of roads and infrastructures. The system can also be called ‘infrastructuresof consumption’ according to (Death, 2013). Consumerism lead corporations to search forcheaper materials for the production of goods this caused the exploitation ofrainforest land for palm oil which is the highest cause of deforestation in countrieslike Indonesia and Malaysia that are the biggest producers of palm oil.
Hugeareas of rainforest are burnet or cut down to plant oil palms, there is so muchdemand for palm oil with an astonishing production of around 43 million tonnesannually and the demand continues to grow rapidly especially for the productionof biofuel (Gunstone,2011). The biggest consumption of palm oilis for the production and processing of foods. Many companies have stopped orare in the process to stop buying palm oil from producers that are linked withdeforestation, abusive towards human rights and peatlands that absorb hugeamounts of carbon. Some of these companies are (Unilever, Kellogg’s, Dunkin’Donuts, Mars, Hershey, and Johnson & Johnson). But campaigns began againstthe reputation of Nestle as the company used to buy non-sustainable palm oilthat is cheaper compared to sustainable. Nestle had almost chosen Forest Trustto certify that the palm oil the company receives is produced with legalcompliance which means it is produce with respect for both indigenous and localcommunities, respect for high value conservation areas, compliance to RSPOprinciples and protection for high carbon stock peatlands and forests (Raynaud et al.
, 2017) Nevertheless since 2015 that Nestle made thispromise, in 2017 Nestle along with Hershey and Mars broke the promise forsustainable palm oil use and keep importing palm oil from deforested Indonesianareas. The producers are foun on the island of Sumatra which is verycatastrophic as the Sumatran rainforest is the habitat of some endemic andendangered species such as the Sumatran tiger, rhinos, clouded leopard, as wellas orangutans and elephants. People became fooled by the huge corporations thatwill switch to sustainable palm oil producers to save the reputation ascorporations but still have chosen money over the trust of consumers and theenvironment. (Neslen,2017) Industrial revolution took place inmany other countries of the world following Great Britain and so almost allcountries of the world became industrialized. The broader industrializationbrought a wide range of prosperity in the world, even more technologicaladvancements, economic growth and jobs for the people. At the same time though itslowly impacted the planet in many ways and steadily these impacts keptincreasing. The latest and most important issue caused by all these actions isthe climate change which started to show its presence since the 20thcentury.
Climate change is present in the whole planet and it is affected byany action made by people which can release harmful greenhouse gases forexample driving a car and operating machines in a factory. These conditions aredeteriorating over time as humanity is struggling to reduce the greenhouse gasemissions with not effective result. In order for capitalism to function peopleshould become divided into rich and poor mostly. Therefore people in poorcountries and communities are the first people that become mostly affected byclimate change as they have only the basic to live and cause the least damageto the environment. This makes it difficult for them to adapt to the changes inclimate. Rich people though can buy anything so the climate changes affectingthese people are minimal (Death, 2013). So in what extend should our currentgeneration make sacrifices in order for the next generation and ourgrandchildren to live a better life than the one that is currently projected? There is so much unpredictability aboutclimate change that scientists do not know what will happen in the future, thiscan be used as a base for more radical action, precaution and research butsometimes people choose to ignore the issue and find an excuse for delay orabsolute inaction. (Death, 2013).
The fundamental target between capitalists isto obtain maximum profit by a system such us a company and that just enoughmoney is paid to the workers so that the production cost will be absorbed.Sometimes though there is overproduction or overaccumulation which means toomuch products are made or too much money is invested that can cause economic recession.(Fletcher,2012)The first industrial revolutionoccurred in Great Britain around 1750-1850 (Crafts and Harley, 1992)which took place withoutthe help from the government. The causes of the industrial capitalism were thesystematic and wide application of modern science along with the empiricalknowledge to the process of production.
The economic activity specialization ininternational and national markets than parish or family. The mass movement ofpopulation from rural areas to cities. The increase of depersonalization in theunit production in order to come less based on the family or the tribe and morein corporate businesses. Changes in the duties of the labour from working inthe production of primary products to the making of manufactured goods. The useof extensive and intensive use of capital resources. Finally the rising of newsocial classes that are determined by the relationship of the production forexample the highest class is the owner of the factory or industry and thosethat are the labour force in the industry are the lowest class. If theseinterrelated changes develop all together in a significant degree we consideran industrial revolution.
All these changes are directly correlated with growthin population and therefore in the increase in demand of goods and products. (Hawken, Lovins and Lovins, 2013). The industrial revolution brought the peopleinto a new era, many new products became available in the market that mostly thehigher class people enjoyed first or exclusively as they high class people arerich and have the ability to buy anything, compared to the workers class thathad to save money to live in very basic conditions of the time.
Generally itsparked the beginning of a new way of life introducing new technologies,inventions and innovations. For example the modern transportation systems beganby the coal powered steam trains, steamships that carried mostly coal all overGreat Britain, all this hunger for coal made it to succeed as a fuel (Death, 2013) aswell as communicational systems like the cable lines used for telegraphs. (Jensen, 1999. The industrial capitalism foundations arebased on coal which is a fossil fuel and a heavy pollutant. The old machineryused in the industrial revolution were very inefficient which this increasedthe coal requirement. The workers in the factories and the people that justwalked in the streets back in the industrial revolution would probably hadserious health issues as this industrialization caused heavy air pollutionwhich can cause serious respiratory and health issues. There was no managementto prevent any kind of disease caused by pollution and the workers that workedin mines were working for many hours.
Workers in factories were often youngchildren that worked in very bad conditions. (VoltingF. and Felix B. 3 Jan 2013)Humans are animals as the rest of theliving things found on earth. Nature made people to connect, as humans used tolive in groups of hunters and gatherers to survive. After the time of theindustrial revolution humanity evolved a new mindset because of the inventionof capitalism that instead of living with nature and respect it, people becameseparated from nature and money became the true meaning in the lives of peopleinstead of the environment. Capitalism rules the lives of people and isresponsible for almost all bad things that happen in the world poverty,alienation, exploitation, loss of vital community and immorality.
Alsocapitalism was the main factor for many catastrophes in the world mainly the destructionof the environment, climate change as well as obesity and malnutrition. (Piketty and Goldhammer, 2013). Environmental problems by industrialcapitalism Indigenous people might have the answer for a sustainable future