In hydrocarbons which compensates the CO2 compression and

In the recent
decades, there has been a common concern about climate change and global
warming, which have caused several natural disasters. With respect to that,
many experts have attributed it to the excessive CO2 emissions from
the continuously growing industrial activities, including the burning of fossil
fuels (Ampomah et al, 2016; Jamali et al, 2016; Asme, 2005; Li, 2005). Therefore,
to mitigate the problems resulting from anthropogenic climate changes, the oil
and gas industry combines the enhanced hydrocarbon recovery and carbon dioxide geological
storage (Ampomah et al. 2016). Zhang et al. (2014), affirms that in the new
century, one of the major challenges it to develop sustainable and safe
technologies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.
Nonetheless, to achieve that purpose, Carbon Dioxide geological storage in deep
formations is believed to be among the promising technology. These deep
geological formations used for CO2 storage include depleted or
nearly depleted Gas and Oil reservoirs, deep saline aquifers, and coal bed
formations that are unmineable (Zhang et al., 2014; Ampomah et al., 2016). The
injection of CO2 into depleted Oil or Gas reservoirs is seen in many
studies as the most beneficial among all currently known mechanisms because of
its economic and technical advantages (Jamali et al, 2016). Jamali et al,
(2016) the sequestration of CO2 through CO2-EOR can help
to reduce the cost of storage when utilizing the already available facilities
in the industry of oil and gas, benefiting from the oil production profit
increment which compensates the carbon dioxide capture costs.  Apart from recovering huge amounts of
hydrocarbons which compensates the CO2 compression and injection
costs, the utilisation of already existing production facilities for its
injection, the sequestration of carbon dioxide for long terms, its flooding technology
also has already been proven for more than five decades (Ampomah et al, 2016; Zhang
et al., 2014; Jamali et al, 2016). In another hand, due to its common
availability around the world, saline geological aquifers are potentially
targeted as adequate long term carbon dioxide underground storages, and the
corresponding technology has been studied for nearly two decades (Ampomah et
al, 2016). Similarly, Graupner et al, (2011) has mentioned that the large
capacity and the common occurrence of deep saline aquifers have made it a major
option for CO2 long term storage.

The
water-alternating-gas WAG has commonly been used in combination with CO2-EOR
to delay carbon dioxide breakthrough and increase the sweep efficiency (Ampomah
et al, 2016). Several research works agree that there are basically four
primary CO2 geological sequestration mechanisms, which include
structural stratigraphic trapping, solubility trapping, residual trapping, and
mineral trapping (Ampomah et al, 2016). Despite of CO2 injection
technique for oil and/or gas recovery being accepted worldwide for more than
four decades, its expansion to include CO2 storage is still being
questioned when it comes to the concerns related to its reliability and risks
of potential leakage. Therefore, to avoid buoyancy effects which can make CO2
migrate upwards leading to potential leakage, CO2 trapping is frequently
done in the formations that have cape rock above it, such as mudstone and shale
due to its low permeability. Utilizing CO2 captured from the
lignite-fuelled Great Plains Synfuels plant in the year of 2000, USA has
conducted the world’s first biggest CO2-EOR and storage project and
its monitoring program to ensure the effectiveness and safe storage required to
avoid underground CO2 leakage (Zhang et al, 2014). China has
demonstrated its first big scale CO2-EOR and storage in Jilin
oilfield to enhance CO2 oil recovery mechanism and to ensure a safe
CO2 storage in the reservoir.

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Graupner et al,
(2011) various computer codes including Eclipse (Schlumberger Information
System), are able to perform simulation of multiphase flow in porous media. Nevertheless,
there are fewer computer codes like ToughReact which can simulate multiphase
flow with multi-component transport and reactions simultaneously. As far as CO2
storage is concerned, power companies frequently build specific models of
targeted CO2 storage sites, which usually rely on the Eclipse
simulator (Graupner et al, 2011).